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Euthanasia Presentation

Biomedical Ethics

ashley king

on 25 March 2013

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Transcript of Euthanasia Presentation

Euthanasia Introduction Euthanasia directly or indirectly bringing about the death of another person for that person's sake Physician-Assisted Suicide patient takes their own life with the aid of a physician Types of Euthanasia Active performing an action that directly causes someone to die (lethal injection) Passive allowing someone to die by not doing something that would prolong life (withdrawing/withholding life support, ventilator, feeding tube) Voluntary and Involuntary Active voluntary: directly causing death WITH the consent of the patient involuntary: directly causing death WITHOUT the consent of the patient Passive voluntary: withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining measures WITH consent of the patient involuntary: withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining measures WITHOUT the consent of the patient Importance Discusses death and human dignity Looks at the role that doctors and nurses play regarding end of life care Examines Autonomy, Pain, and Mercy Polls May 2006 Gallup Angus Reid Public Opinion Euthanasia in United States “When a person has a disease that cannot be cured, do you think doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life by some painless means if the patient and his family request it?” Do you think people who help a person to commit suicide should be prosecuted? If a parent is found guilty of assisting a terminally ill son or daughter to die, what do you think should be the appropriate punishment?
Mandatory sentence of life imprisonment
Prison sentence at the discretion of a judge
A fine, but no time in prison
No penalty at all
No Comment February 4 and 5 2010 Subjects: 1,001
Margin of Error: +/- 3.1% Generally speaking, do you support or oppose legalizing euthanasia in the United States? Support – 42%
Democrats – 47%
Republicans – 30%
Independent – 47% Oppose – 36%
Democrats – 29%
Republicans – 51%
Independent – 34% No Comment / Not Sure – 22%
Democrats - 24%
Republicans - 19%
Independent - 18% 400 B.C. 17th and 18th
centuries 1828 1915 1939 - 1945 1952 1990 - 1994 1998 - 2002 2008 Until Hippocrates in 400B.C., a doctor had two duties; to cure if able and to kill. According to the Hippocratic Oath, "I will give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked, nor suggest such council.“ This was not fully taken to heart in his time though. Throughout time, most people were against euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Euthanasia and PAS were questioned because of the church. 1751: Germany (PAS) The first official statute outlawing physician assisted suicide occurred in New York Dr. Haiselden decided to not perform a surgery that could have saved a deformed baby’s life. A movie called The Black Stork, which is based on Dr. Haiselden made controversy grow even more. Germany (during WWII): “Mercy Killing” was performed, which changed the views of many people due to the horrific experiments that happened. 1942: Switzerland (PAS) “groups petition the UN to amend the Declaration of Human Rights to include euthanasia.” In 1990, Terri Schiavo becomes brain dead and in 1998 the legal battle between her husband and her parents begins. The state ordered her tube to be removed and she died in 2005. In the early 1990s, a public survey showed that more than half of Americans supported assisted suicide. In 1994, Oregon passes the Death with Dignity Act making it the first state to permit physician-assisted suicide. Jack Kevorkian showed a video tape of his assistance in kill a man that aired on national television. He was sentenced to 10-25 years and was released in 2007. Netherlands: 2001 (Euthanasia)
2002 (PAS) Belgium: 2002 (Euthanasia & PAS) Washington permits PAS Luxembourg: 2008 (Euthanasia & PAS) Euthanasia is illegal in all 50 states in the United States Physician-Assisted is legal Washington, Oregon, and Montana. December 5, 2008 State District Court judge Dorothy McCarter ruled that competent, terminally ill patients have the right to self administer lethal doses of medication as prescribed by a physician. Physicians who prescribe such medications will not face legal punishment The Oregon Death with Dignity Act was established. This legalized physician assisted dying with certain restrictions making Oregon the first US state and one of the first jurisdictions in the world to officially do so 1994 2008 Electorate of the state of Washington voted in favor of Initiative 1000 which made assisted suicide legal in the state through the Washington Death with Dignity Act. 1999 passed the Advance Directives Act. Under the law, in some situations, Texas hospitals and physicians have the right to withdraw life support measures, such as mechanical respiration, from terminally ill patients when such treatment is considered to be both futile and inappropriate. one recent study dealing primarily with Christians, Southern Baptists, Pentecostals, and Catholics tended to be opposed to euthanasia Individuals who attended church regularly and more frequently and considered themselves more religious were found to be more opposed to euthanasia than to those who had a lower level of religiosity Moderate Protestants showed mixed views concerning end of life decisions in general Within all groups, religiosity also correlated to opinions on euthanasia. Opinion by Race and Age white Americans to be more accepting of euthanasia than black Americans Tuskegee Syphilis Study Age is an important variable in predicting the attitudes of a health care professional towards euthanasia ‘do not resuscitate’ orders are more frequently issued for those who become hospitalized and previously suffer AGE main reason for this discrepancy is attributed to the lower levels of trust in the medical establishment RACE Netherlands, April 2002 4 requirements: The patient must have already been in the doctor`s care for a period of time
The patient`s suffering is unbearable, and she or he has no hope of recovery.
The patient makes a deliberate and voluntary request that she or he has discussed thoroughly with the doctor.
The doctor consults a colleague who agrees that these criteria have been met Belgium, September 2002 2nd country law only speaks of "euthanasia" but is negotiated whether lethal injection or overdose Switzerland allows assisted suicide, but euthanasia is not legal 1937: Suicide is not illegal if for altruistic reasons Physicians and healthcare practitioners feel there may be a conflict of interest when it comes to abiding with legislation and patient requests for assisted suicide. Currently only a small fraction of patients (about 15%) have clear directions in the form of a living will or a health care proxy in place to advise family members or physicians of their end of life wishes when will you decide that it is time for a living will? Debate For vs Against Questions 1. What are the arguments concerning a person's right to die? 2. How does euthanasia tie into a physician's duty? 3. How should euthanasia be considered on religious terms? Against It is clearly taking the life of another human being. Our society and our laws see numerous types of killing as wrong. Homicides, Murder, Manslaughter are all looked down upon. Physician's are trained to heal and preserve life. It is not the duty of a physician to end the life of a patient. As human beings we have defined beginnings and ends to our lives. We don't get to decide our start therefore we should not be able to decide our end. For Ashley Michelle King, Kellye Sledge, Fletcher Cleaves, Nicholas Cornwell, De'Kyndall Johnson Case Studies Ms. A Mr. B questions? http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/rs/sanctity/cheuthanasiarev1.shtml
ProCon.org. (2010, September 28). Did You Know? Retrieved from http://euthanasia.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000128
University of Missouri – School of Medicine, Center for Health Ethics
Vaughn, L. (2013). Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide. (2nd ed.), Bioethics: principles, issues, and cases (pp. 594-598). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ProCon.org. "International Perspectives." ProCon.org. 28 Sep. 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2013.
ProCon.org. "Historical Timeline." ProCon.org. 9 Nov. 2012. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. Euthanasia in the Bible:
2 Samuel 1:9-10 “Then he begged me, ‘Come over here and put me out of my misery, for I am in terrible pain and want to die.’ So I killed him.” Illness can take away autonomy and dignity, euthanasia allows you to take back control. A separate right to die is not necessary, because our other human rights imply the right to die http://www.rsrevision.com/GCSE/christian_perspectives/life/euthanasia/for.htm
http://www.examiner.com/article/human-euthanasia-the-debate-the-arguments-for-both-sides As far back as the 16th Century, people have been arguing for the terminally ill to be aided in ending life by physicians who should not be held morally or legally to blame for assisting the individual. Since the "16th Century, people have been arguing for the terminally ill to be aided in ending life by physicians who should not be held morally or legally to blame for assisting the individual." October 1991 Lung Cancer patient Doctor removed tube, and also gave morphine Potassium Chloride dose How do you feel? November 1996 6 Operations for Cancer Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre morphine, hydromorphone, nitroglycerin, & potassium chloride first degree murder manslaughter How do you feel? Though these two cases seem similar in which both may cross the line, do you feel the doctors were justified?
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