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Radio broadcasting

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Ana-Maria Huluban

on 22 June 2015

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Transcript of Radio broadcasting

Radio broadcasting
History
The radio was invented by
Guglielmo Marconi(1874-1937)
He thought of an idea of
wireless communication
. He worked very hard. Finally by the spring of
1895
he was ready to test his invention. By the summer his signals were reaching hundreds of yards. In a short time he
was receiving signals from two miles away
. In early 1896 Marconi revealed his wireless system to the world. He started building larger transmitters to travel farther distances and he built radio stations on the coast of England to
warn ships of dangerous waters
.
Types of radio stations
COMMERCIAL,
Commercial radio is radio funded by advertising. Throughout programming, commercial radio will occasionally break for adverts from which it draws its funding. The radio station will charge CPT (Cost per thousand) which means that every one thousand listeners that the advert gets. They will be charged a fee.
Commercial stations’ income is funded by advertising companies, who buy airtime from different stations.
Jobs in radio
Radio producer:
creates content for programmes and control the entire process of production for live programmes and programmes that have been recorded.
Radio presenter:
create scripts, research, be able to interview.
Reporter:
research stories and broadcast them on the radio to audiences. Gather research – witness and report events/ collect interviews.
DJ
- selects and plays music, can have own show.
Future of Radio - is here
The radio industry is undergoing a major change as most media industries have since the introduction of the internet in the 1990’s.The internet has giving people worldwide to listen to radio stations live or podcasts at anytime of the day, anywhere.
What is Radio?
“A Radio is a Medium for Communication . It transmits messages via radio waves; It is a communication system based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves”
His stations
saved many lives
and he felt proud of that. Marconi made a new system where people could tune it to
other frequencies or stations
. This reduced the chance of interfering signals. Marconi was becoming a very famous man with his new and improved systems.
In 1899 he sent a message across the English Channel,
a total distance of
32 miles
. He still wanted to reach farther. His goal was to send wireless signals all the way
across the Atlantic Ocean
. One afternoon in December Marconi triumphed. That achievement would open an era for
awesome advances in radio
.
1920's
The Radio was our
first mass medium
. From that, the radio changed the world!
In 1923 radio broadcasting began.
They had battery powered radio. In November 1923 , the first station, aired.
The station 3AR started to transmit music, news, and race results
. Also that year,
Edwin Armstrong, invented the first portable radio
. The first radios were sets, which only had one station the owner picked. In 1924 they were able to receive more stations. At that time, 3 million radio sets were in use in the United States. Baseball games were also being broadcasted at that time.
1930's - 40's
In 1931,RCA ( a radio company today) , made one of the most famous receivers at that time. Also the first midget radio sets were sold. Then
in 1933, the phonograph( the record player), was invented and bands were making records
; but
they didn’t want the radio companies to play their songs because they thought that that people wouldn’t buy their records
. In 1934,
Edwin Armstrong
developed his theory for the use of FM. Also in that year, 13 million sets were sold in this year and 130 million tubes. Then the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and so
they used Radios to tell the nation what was going on in the War.
Then in 1942, they stopped manufacturing radios because of the war. 1944, over 30 million homes in the US., had 57 million radio sets
but...
http://www.pbs.org/tesla/ll/ll_whoradio.html
1950's -80's
In 1951, 5 million auto radio sets were sold and produced,
and over
13 million radio receivers.

The TV started affecting the radios popularity.
In 1951 Sony produced and put the miniature transistor radio in the market.In 1960, people were buying AM/FM and FM more than ever right then and
between 1960 and 1965 , the percentage of growth was 750%.
In 1963, they started the Emergency Broadcasting System. In 1964, table and clock radios were made with over 3 million per year, which held through 1965.
In 1977 there are 205 million F/M receivers in use in U.S. and
95% of the people had a home F/M receiver
. In 1979 there were 4,549 AM and 4,102 FM stations on the air.
In 1985, Sony built a radio the size of a credit card.
1990's
PUBLIC

Public broadcasters receive funding from diverse sources including
license fees, individual contributions, public financing, and commercial financing.
- nationally or locally operated.
In some countries, public broadcasting is run by a single organization. Other countries have multiple public broadcasting organizations operating regionally or in different languages.
Historically, public broadcasting was once the dominant or only form of broadcasting in many countries
(with the notable exception of the United States).
Non-for-profit Radio

Communal and voluntary radio stations.
Stations which are funded to run but receive no money at the outcome.
Involves communal participation.
e.g.: School/Churches radios.
Radio Formats
Special/unusual radio transmissions
Professional Bodies

In the radio industry there are many different professional organisations which are designed to for example, regulate programme content etc.
A
podcast
is a digital medium consisting of an episodic series of audio, video, PDF, or ePub files subscribed to and downloaded through web syndication or streamed online to a computer or mobile device. The word is a neologism derived from "broadcast" and "pod" from the success of the iPod, as audio podcasts are often listened to on portable media players.
Amateur radio
Amateur radio, also known as "ham radio", is a hobby in which
enthusiasts are licensed to communicate on a number of bands in the radio frequency spectrum non-commercially and for their own enjoyment.
They may also provide emergency and public service assistance. This has been very
beneficial in emergencies
, saving lives in many instances.
Pirate radio
Pirate radio is illegal or unregulated radio transmission for entertainment or political purposes. While pirate just refers to the illegal nature of the broadcasts, there have also been notable pirate offshore radio transmissions.

Pirate radio generally describes the unlicensed broadcast of FM radio, AM radio, or short wave signals over a wide range. In some cases radio stations are deemed legal where the signal is transmitted, but illegal where the signals are received—especially when the signals cross a national boundary. In other cases, a broadcast may be considered "pirate" due to the nature of its content, its transmission format (especially a failure to transmit a station identification according to regulations), or the transmit power (wattage) of the station, even if the transmission is not technically illegal (such as a web cast or an amateur radio transmission). Pirate radio stations are sometimes called bootleg stations (a term especially associated with two-way radio), clandestine stations (associated with heavily politically motivated operations) or free radio stations.
Online radio stations from BBC:
BBC Radio 1
BBC Radio 2
BBC Radio 3
BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 5 Live
BBC Radio 6 Music
BBC Radio 1Xtra
BBC Radio 4 Extra
BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra
BBC Asian Network
BBC Local Radio - England and the Channel Islands
BBC Radio Foyle - Northern Ireland
BBC Radio Ulster - Northern Ireland
BBC Radio Nan Gaidheal - Scottish Gaelic
BBC Radio Scotland
BBC Radio Cymru - Welsh
BBC Radio Wales
BBC World News - Television
BBC World Service
BBC News
BBC Parliament
JINGLE
A jingle is a short tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses. The jingle contains one or more hooks and meaning that explicitly promote the product being advertised, usually through the use of one or more advertising slogans. Ad buyers use jingles in radio and television commercials; they can also be used in non-advertising contexts to establish or maintain a brand image. Jingles are a form of sound branding.
Radio Station Logo
A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. Logos are either purely graphic (symbols/icons) or are composed of the name of the organization (a logotype or wordmark).
HOMEWORK
radiolab.org
A radio format, or programming format, or programming genre refers to
the overall content broadcasting over a radio station.
Some stations broadcast multiple genres on set schedule. Over the years, formats have evolved and new ones have been introduced.
A numbers station is a type of
shortwave radio station characterized by unusual broadcasts, reading out lists of numbers or incomprehensible morse code messages.
The voices are often created by speech synthesis and are transmitted in a wide variety of languages. The voices are usually female, although sometimes men's or children's voices are used. Some voices are synthesized and created by machines; however, some stations used to have live readers.

In the 1960s, Time magazine reported that the
numbers stations first appeared shortly after World War II and were imitating a format that had been used to send weather data during that war.


A secret broadcast is, simply put, a broadcast that is
not for the consumption of the general public.
The invention of the wireless was initially greeted as a boon by armies and navies. Units could now be coordinated by nearly instant communications. Threat: intercepted radio signal.
In the 1920s the United States was able to track Japanese fleet exercises even through fog banks by monitoring their radio transmissions.
NUMBERS
STATIONS
To prevent interference between different users,
the artificial generation and use of radio waves is strictly regulated by law
, coordinated by an international body called the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
. The radio spectrum is divided into a number of radio bands on the basis of frequency, allocated to different uses.
SECRET
BROADCAST
Special/unusual radio transmissions
UVB-76, also known as "The Buzzer", is the nickname given by radio listeners to a shortwave radio station that broadcasts on the frequency 4625 kHz.
It broadcasts a short, monotonous buzz tone, repeating at a rate of approximately 25 tones per minute, for 24 hours per day.
On very rare occasions, the buzzer signal is interrupted and a
voice transmission in Russian
takes place.
The first reports were made of a station on this frequency in 1982.





Letter beacons
are radio transmissions of
uncertain origin and unknown purpose, consisting of only a single repeating Morse code letter.
They have been classified into a number of groups according to transmission code and frequency, and it is supposed that the source for most of them is Russia.

-
Possible uses:
radio propagation beacons, channel markers, or beacons used in tracking satellites or for civil defense purposes.
- used by the Russian navy (especially its submarine branch) to find the most suitable radio frequency for contact based on current radio propagation conditions.
UVB-76
(more recently
MDZhB)
LETTER
BEACONS
listen - read - watch
Naturally occurring radio waves
are made by lightning, or by astronomical objects.
Artificially generated radio waves
are used for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites, computer networks and innumerable other applications.
LONG waves
SHORT waves
- long waves may cover a part of the Earth very consistently,
- typically kilometer-sized or greater
Different frequencies of radio waves have different propagation characteristics in the Earth's atmosphere
- shorter waves can reflect off the ionosphere and travel around the world,
- much shorter wavelengths bend or reflect very little and travel on a line of sight.
Shortwave radio is
used for broadcasting of voice and music, and long-distance communication to ships and aircraft, or to remote areas out of reach of wired communication or other radio services.
Additionally, it is used for
two-way international communication
by amateur radio enthusiasts for hobby, educational and emergency purposes.
AM
(or Amplitude Modulation) and
FM
(or Frequency Modulation) are ways of broadcasting radio signals. Both transmit the information in the form of electromagnetic waves.
It was the United States' first model of radio (and later television) during the 1920s, in contrast with the public television model in Europe during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s which prevailed worldwide (except in the United States) until the 1980s.
Owned by
a private media corporation vs. state
Audience Research and Analysis

Nielsen Audio
is a consumer research company in the United States that collects listener data on radio broadcasting audiences.
Daypart
Designated times during the day that are broken down into specific time periods in order to rank station listenership. For example, the morning drive daypart is 5:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m.
Cume
- the number of different persons who tune to a radio station during the course of a daypart for at least five minutes.
AQH
- an abbreviation for
Average Quarter-Hour Persons
(AQH Persons), defined by Arbitron (now referred to as Nielsen Audio) as the average number of persons listening to a particular station for at least five minutes during a 15-minute period.
BEACON :
a fixed radio transmitting station that broadcasts a characteristic signal by means of which a vessel or aircraft can determine its bearing or position.
Radio formats are frequently employed as a
marketing tool
, and are subject to frequent change.
Music radio, old time radio, all-news radio, sports radio, talk radio and weather radio
describe the operation of different genres of radio format and each format can often be
sub-divided into many specialty formats
.
4 main categories:
Management/administrative
Sales/Sales support/Underwriting
Engineering/Technical/Computer
Production/Programming/News
2000: PANDORA Radio - music streaming and automated music recommendation service.

2001: the iPod released
2002: Sirius Satellite Radio (American radio service)
a wide variety of genres, broadcasting 24 hours
daily, commercial-free, and uncensored.
In 1992 there was a total of 11,312 radio stations on the air. In 1995 the average U.S. home has about 5.6 radio receivers and there also an estimate of 584,900,000 radio receivers.
2000's
1992 - Satellite radio appeared
1997 - first traditional radio station to air online on the internet : WXYC
- A station is set by specifying an artist or song, or a combination of multiple items of any kind in a single station. Listeners can tune into pre-made genre stations, other users' stations, or create their own stations based on their musical interests. Each track played can be responded to with favorable (thumbs up) or unfavorable (thumbs down) buttons, which determine if it should be played, and how much should similarly classified songs be played in the station.
radio on any device - digital radio
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