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Function of the muscular system

BTEC L3 Sport
by

Sam Spong

on 7 March 2016

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Transcript of Function of the muscular system

Lesson 4
The Function of the
Muscular System
Major Muscles
Muscular System
Recap:
the major muscles of the body
3 types of muscle
Today's Objective:
the function of the muscular system
Function of Skeletal Muscle
3 Types of Muscle
Cardiac muscle
(Heart Muscle)
Smooth Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
Cardiac muscle is found solely in the walls of the heart.
It is striated
Contractions are not under conscious control = Involuntary

It is under control of the autonomic nervous system

Cardiac muscles are highly resistant to fatigue

Smooth muscle is also sometimes known as involuntary muscle due to our inability to control its movements,
Does not have the stripy appearance of skeletal muscle.

Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, oesophagus, bronchi and in the walls of blood vessels.

Smooth muscles have slow, rhythmical contractions and control internal organs, e.g. moving food along the oesophagus or constricting blood vessels during vasoconstriction.
Skeletal Muscles are those which attach to bones and have the main function of contracting to facilitate movement of our skeletons. They are also sometimes known as striated muscles due to their appearance. The cause of this 'stripy' appearance is the bands of Actin and Myosin which form the Sarcomere, found within the Myofibrils.

Skeletal muscles are also sometimes called voluntary muscles, because we have direct control over them through nervous impulses from our brains sending messages to the muscle. Contractions can vary to produce powerful, fast movements or small precision actions. Skeletal muscles also have the ability to stretch or contract and still return to their original shape.
Skeletal muscle has several important functions within the body:

MOVEMENT: skeletal muscles attach to bones, against which they pull to enable movements.
SUPPORT & POSTURE: the muscles are rarely fully relaxed and are often in a constant state of slight contraction. In order to adopt an upright position, many muscles within the legs and torso are contracting to ensure that the body is balanced. This is also known as muscle tone.
HEAT PRODUCTION: the contraction of skeletal muscle involves the production of energy.
This is why the body becomes hot when exercising.
When the body is cold, the muscle often goes through a series of involuntary contractions (shivering) in order to release heat and keep the body warm.
Functions of the
Muscular System

Lesson Objective 2:

How the muscles combine to cause movement
Muscles never work alone. In order for a coordinated movement to be produced, the muscles must work in a group or team, with several muscles working at any one time.
Agonist (Prime Mover)
A muscle that contracts and is directly responsible for the movement that results at a joint.
Antagonist
A muscle that has an action opposite to that of an agonist and helps in the production of a coordinated movement.
Fixator
A muscle that stabilises the origin of the agonist so that an effective contraction can take place.
Synergist
A muscle that aids the action of the agonist or prevents undesirable movements by stabilizing joints across which the agonist acts.
Antagonist Pairings
pectorals / latissimus dorsi;
anterior deltoids / posterior deltoids;
trapezius / deltoids;
rectus abdominis / erector spinalis;
quadriceps group / hamstring group;
tibialis anterior / gastrocnemius and soleus;
bicep brachii / triceps brachii;
wrist flexors / wrist extensors.
Task 1: using the pictures supplied, identify the bones and muscles used for movement
E.g. Usain Bolt 100m Sprint
Bones in leg: Femur, Patella, Radius, Fibula.
Muscles in the leg: Quadriceps, hamstrings, Gastrocnemius
Full transcript