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Families of the Periodic Table

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by

Jane Bohlander

on 19 November 2015

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Transcript of Families of the Periodic Table

Hydrogen
Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth
Metals

Transition Metals
Lanthanides
Actinides
Boron Family
Carbon Family
Nitrogen Family
Oxygen Family
Halogens
Nobel Gases
simplest element
Not part of any family
Physical Properties
Gas
Chemical Properties
Commercial Sources & Uses
3 isotopes
Never found "free" - but always bonded with:
Chemical Properties
continued
Abundant in atmosphere - must be isolated
Families of the Periodic Table
Group IA
Extremely reactive - never alone in nature!
Physical Properties
Good conductors
Chemical Properties
1 valence electron
Uses
Human body - needs balance of Na & K ions
Manufacturing
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Fr
Extremely reactive - never alone in nature!
Be
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Ra
Group IIA
Group IIIA
Group IVA
Group VA
Group VIA
Group VIIA
Group VIIIA
Physical Properties
Shiny when cut
Malleable
Chemical Properties
2 valence electrons
Uses
Alloys for airplanes, cars, boats
Milk of Magnesia
Flares, fireworks
Ca – Diet, Building materials
Iron
Copper
Silver
Gold
Nickle
Etc
Physical Properties
Hard
Chemical Properties
Many different chemical properties - don't really follow patterns
Uses
Trusses, I-beams
Human body
Groups I- VIII B
Can be:
Trends of the Periodic Table
Once called rare earth metals
Physical Properties
Paramagnetic
Uses
Chemical Properties
glass & TV industries
Inner Transition Metals
oxidize rapidly in moist air
Only 1st 4 are natural
Physical Properties
Shiny
Uses
Fission reactions (uranium, plutonium)
Chemical Properties
Radioactive
Man-Made
Tend to be unstable
B
Al
Ga
In
Tl
Uut
Physical Properties
Carbon has many forms - each has unique properties
Chemical Properties
Uses
C
Si
Ge
Sn
Pb
Fl
Diamond
Hardest substance known
High melting point
Non-conductive
Other elements have properties common to metals and metalloids
4 valence electrons
Graphite – made into pencil lead.
Diamonds
Jewelry
Polishing and grinding
Rotary dentistry tools
Silicon/Germanium
Microchips
C = non-metal
N
P
As
Sb
Bi
Uup
Physical Properties
N, P = non-metal
N
Usually diatomic (N2)
Gas
No taste, color, odor
78% of earth’s atmosphere
Gain or share 3 electrons
Chemical Properties
Nitrogen
Air, soil, fertilizers (all plants need it)
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
Smog
Medicine
Uses
O
S
Se
Te
Po
Lv
Oxygen (O)
Gas
Colorless, odorless, tasteless
Most abundant element in earth’s crust
Physical Properties
Sulfur (brimstone)
Variety of forms
Yellow solid – room temp
Melts at 113 C
O, S, Se = non-metal
Sulfur
Reactive at room temp
Forms sulfides with some metals
Also reacts with nonmetals
Chemical Properties
Portable oxygen tank
Oxygen (O)
Air (atmosphere - about 21%)
Ozone can kill, also can kill bacteria
Uses
the salt-formers
F
Cl
Br
I
At
Uus
F has largest electronegativity
As atomic # increases
Densities, melting points, and boiling points increase
Colors get darker
Physical Properties
F, Cl, I = gases, nonmetal
Gain or share 1 electrons in a reaction
Chemical Properties
Uses
                                 
Reacts with almost every known substance
Fluorine
Chlorine
Table salt
Used to kill bacteria in water
Bleach wood pulp in paper production
He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Uuo
Gases
Physical Properties
Helium (He)
Used in balloons
Diluted into oxygen in deep-sea diving
second most common element in universe
Very common in stars, rare on earth
Uses
Used in flashbulbs
and “exotic” light bulbs
Xenon (Xe)
Krypton (Kr)
Argon (Ar)
Neon (Ne)
Elements
Tend to be separate from other elements
Chemical Properties
electron configuration similar to IA elements, but different properties
most abundant element
Least dense of all gases
90% of atoms in the universe
tasteless
odorless
colorless
1 proton, 1 electron
1 valence electron
needs only 1 electron to fill energy level
Most is found in water
Bonds with N to form ammonia NH3
itself (diatomic) H2
O = water
metals
Forms acids bonded with Group 17
Combined with liquid vegetable oils (hydrogenation)
Space program - rocket fuel
Used by ammonia manufacturers
electrolysis of water
fuel gases
Produced from:
Very soft
Low densities
Shiny
React violently with water
Most reactive metal family
tend to lose it easily
Not found pure in nature
Harder
Denser than alkali metals
Widely distributed in Earth's crust
Eager to lose electrons
Very reactive
Be - x-rays
Mg
Ra – cancer treatment
Ba – Fireworks, rat poison, x-rays
Sr – Fireworks (red)
Most of the metals used "as metal"
Usually solid
Malleable/ductile
Good Conductors
Shiny
Reactive - copper, iron
unreactive - gold, silver, platinum
Make colorful compounds
Industrial processes
Jewelry
Coins
Artificial hip joints
Chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese
Iron - carrying O in blood
No longer rare
Soft
Malleable
Good Conductors
Shiny
upon heating, react with S, H, C and N
react with halogens upon heating
reaction with oxygen is slow at room temperature, but they can ignite around 150-200 °C
dissolve quickly in acids
Nuclear reactor control rods
Coloring ceramics and glass
Street lights
Catalysts in chemical reaction
Atomic #s higher than uranium (92) = transuranium
Very dense
Soft
Malleable
Good Conductors
They react with boiling water or dilute acid to release hydrogen gas.
The metals tarnish readily in air.
If ingested, will remain in the body indefinitely
10-year power source for pacemakers (plutonium)
Cancer therapy
Fl
Sn, Pb = metal
Si, Ge = metalloid
Graphite
Soft, slippery
Conducts
Silicon does not react with water, air, or acids and low temperatures
Carbon
In diamonds, graphite – unreactive
Gain, lose, or share 4 electrons
Charcoal
Water and air filters
Deodorant shoe inserts
Graphite
Manufacturing paints
Lead (Pb)
Car batteries
Weights for balancing tires
bullets
Tin (Sn)
Canned foods
Combined with copper to make bronze - statues
P
Exists in 4 forms
All solid
Different colors (white/yellow, red, black/violet)
Bi = metal
As, Sb = metalloid
Uup
Nitrogen (N2)
Doesn’t usually react
Phosphorus (P)
Very reactive – not found pure in nature
Arsenic
Poison
Preserving animal skins
Glass manufacturing
Phosphorus
Match heads
Po, Lv = metal
Te = metalloid
Two forms in the atmosphere
O3 (ozone)
O2
Liquifies at -183 to -218 C; solidifies at -218 oC
Gain or share 2 electrons
Oxygen – one of the most reactive elements
Forms oxides with elements from every group except Group VIIIA
Strong electronegativity
Polonium
Thermoelectric power source in space shuttles
Tellurium (Te)
Glass tinting
Antiknock compound in gasoline
Sulfur (S)
Makes rubber strong and pliable
Bleaching/disinfectant
Industrial uses
Sulfuric acid
Acid rain
At = solid metalloid
Br = liquid, nonmetal
At – very radioactive, names means unstable
Br – only nonmetal liquid at room temp
F one of last elements to be discovered
Form salts when reacting with metals
Uncombined elements are dangerous to humans
F reacts violently with H containing compounds
Exist as diatomic when pure, form acids with H
Very reactive – the most reactive nonmetal family
Kills algae/bacteria in drinking water and swimming pools
Used to prevent tooth decay
Bromine
Photographic compounds
Natural gas and oil production
Iodine
Need in thyroid gland
Disinfectant (used with alcohol)
Atoms have little attraction for each other
Extremely low boiling/freezing points
Tasteless
Odorless
Colorless
Can be forced to react
Xe, Rn, Kr
Do not usually lose, gain,
or share electrons.
Do not ordinarily form compounds
Colored Lights
Liquid Ne used as refrigerant
Xe – lighting devices (high speed photographic tubes)
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