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Greek and Italian English: V2
Transcript of Greek and Italian English: V2
- Syllable timed, unlike English which is stressed-time
- Elongation of vowel sounds, Vowel sounds are often wider and broader.
Eg: Italy /itali/ is pronounced more like “Itaaly” /ɪta:|ɪ/
- Often replace /θ/ “Th” with [t] or [f] making /θ/ voiceless
Eg: “Think” may be pronounced as “Tink” or “Fink”
-Tendency to pronounce [r] with a thrill in comparison to English approximate /ɹ/
Like within Italian, many words deriving from an association with Romance Languages contain false connotations
- Parent = Relatives in general, not parents
-Camera = Room (not associated with a device you capture light with)
-Magazzino = Store (Not a magazine)
English Language: Unit 2
Greek and Italian English "Wog-speak"
By Jessa & Joseph
History of Italian and Greek English
Graph: Depicts the demographic of Language other than English within Australia (2011: Italian 8% / Greek 6%)
Pitt, Italian and Greek Ethhnolect, viewed 1 September 2014 <http://www.pitt.edu/~kiesling/kiesling-ER.pdf>
Academia, Variation in Australian English, viewed 1 September 2013 <Http://www.academia.edu/4457136/Variation_change_and_ethnic_identity_in_Australian_English>
Google Books, Italian and Greek Ethnolect, viewed 1 September Http://books.google.com.au/books?id=jhE4S5UUG_oC&pg=PA234&lpg=PA234&dq=wogspeak+ethnolect&source=bl&ots=AnrmpgWErw&sig=6ABNOwkjrNBktnXVu7C4zvQ_bFM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f9kDVNe1MsXkuQSJnoLwAw&ved=0CDAQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=wogspeak%20ethnolect&f=false
Kate Burridge and Debbie De Laps, 2010, Love the Lingo VCE English Language
Why had this ethnolect
How it was formed?
When did "Wog-Speak" form?
- Australia has a growing multilingual and multiethnic population which enables people to adapt features of a native language to features of Australian English.
- Italian and Greek English or commonly called “Wog-speak” (which can be used in a derogatory manner) has derived in this particular manner. Within the last thirty years a vital change in migration occurred; as recently as 1970, the “white Australia” policy which restricted migration from Asia and the Middle East was still in force. During this time, non-Anglo migrants came mostly from the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe, especially Greece and Italy.
- Most of these were unable to speak English or did it very poorly. Because of this, when attempting to learn English, these migrants would be unable to associate features of English and their native language of either Greek or Italian and would conclude by using both
- The “wog-speak” nature or ethnolect further developed with new generations. Due to times within Australia, Italian and Greek migrants were often ridiculed for their broken and non-standard form of English. The new generation did not want to associate with this so attempted to speak in a manner that would be completely contrast to the previous generations of immigrants. This actually resulted in further definition of particular systematical features of the Greek & Italian ethnolect.
Prior to 1970, the white Australia policy existed. This only allowed migrants from Western Europe and the Mediterranean. As there was no restrictions on Italian and Greek immigrants, a large number immigrated to Australia throughout the 1960s and 1970s. This is when the ethnolect became noticed within Australian Society.
The Italian and Greek or “Wog-Speak” ethnolect predominantly formed due the the sudden surge of Italian/ Greek or "Euro" immigrants during the 1960s- 70s period of time.
- The ethnolect formed due to the fact that many of these immigrants were adapted to their native language and were unable to terminate features of that language that include structuring and pronunciation which is the biggest variation of this ethnolect in comparison to standard Australian English.
- Many of these immigrants migrated to Australia with little or no experience of English and so to fulfill a “normal” everyday Australian life they were persuaded to learn the English Language. As many were adapted to the features of their past language, many of them combined these features with features of the English language and simply used features of their native language for features which clashed with the English Language.
- As a result of the difficulty of the English Language, this ethnolect was formed and was predominately used within these subgroups in Australia.
"Wogboys is a humorous program which exploits commonly held stereotypes of the Italian and Greek ethnolect
Morphology and Lexicology
- Many Italian borrowings have entered into mainstream Australian English vocabulary
- Add vowels to the end of consonants to final words for ease of pronunciation
Altering English words with Italian language features
-The English verb “to worry” becomes “worriare”
- There is no standard syntax usage as speakers borrow rules and structures from their former language and apply it to English which creates a non standard form
- The indefinite article is omitted in Greek as often as it is within English as it expresses the quantity of only one
- Due to no standard, sentences in Greek English are often structured in a dysfunctional manner “He is lawyer” (removing the indefinite article) as apposed to stand english “He is a lawyer”
- Greek English also often removes the verb “to be” from sentence structuring as inflectional suffixes are maintained to show tense
“They English Speakas” vs. “They are English Speakers”
Morphology and Lexicology
- Greek English lexis tends to combine the roots of English words with greek suffixes that are usually used to determine gender within the greek language
-Floor = floori
- Borrowings: Greek Australian English tends to borrow and associate with lexis from the language which it is associated with
-Papou = Grandpa
Greek English consists of a large variety of words that have a greek etymology. 26% of words within the English language are borrowings from greek
- Greek roots are used within Greek english as well as the standard English Language
-Ology (Study Of;)
- Greek language uses adjectives to describe the world within a simple form (which is also present within standard english)
-Eg; Hippopotamus is composed of the word “Hippo” meaning horse and potamus, meaning river
- “Er” sound at the end of words becomes an open “Ah” sound. High rising terminal is used to end most sentences like “whateva[ah]!” instead of “Whatever”
- The addition of plural suffixes where they grammatically do not belong
-“Hello, how are yous going?”
- Rolling the sound [r] is a common feature of Greek English
- Pronunciation of diphtongs is accentuated
-“hour” is pronounced as “ouwah”
- Often spoken at a faster speed and is louder
- Stress is often emphasised on certain vowel/ syllables and particular verbs as there are grammatical accents placed on a vowel in every Greek word” “Sh
- Vowels are elongated “iPaaaad”
- There is often an overuse of the verb “must” this is because in Italian meaning, that is normally conveyed in English by varying modal verbs (should, must, ought, might ect.) is conveyed in Italian by inflectional variations of the verb “dovere” which means “must”
-“I have to do homework” might become “I must to do homework”
- Often put adjectives after a noun instead of the proper before a noun “House brown”
- Subjects are not required in Italian, which results in broken sentencing structuring of “Is impossible” or “is likely” with no present subject. This is because Italian subjects are implied by the type of verb present in the sentence
- Word order can change in Italian without meaning unlike in English, which if altered in that manner the sentence would not make grammatical sense
Wog's vs. Aussies:
Wog's vs. Aussies:
Future of "Wog-Speak"
The most commonly heard ethnolects are those of the Italians and the Greeks since they encouraged the settlememt in Australia for employment after World War II. As they arrived, it was evident that they have retained aspects of their migrant English accents and have continued to pass through their sons and daughters. Many migrants immediately began working in factories within days of coming into Australia, therefore, they had little chance to develop and learn English formally. Rather, they learned from other Italians and Greeks. Within Australian society, due to the lack of standard Australian English, there has been numerous concepts of "wogspeak", many of them being negative stereotypes like the idea of being uneducated, less intellectual and rather aggressive or intimidating. People are always socially discriminated against for using low status accidents and non standard dialects within Australian Society.
The broadest of ethnolecs have been featured strongly in media stereotypes, so it is suggested that Italian and Greek teenagers are moving away from the ethnic broad variety which is characteristic of the first generation of migrants, possibly because of those stereotypes and other factors to do with assimilating into mainstream society. It is unlikely, though interesting if these varieties or ethnolects will continue to exist with the passing of the first two generations