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Learning Positivity 101

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Michelle RE

on 23 August 2016

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Transcript of Learning Positivity 101

Dr. Michelle Rogers-Estable
Dr. Kathryn DeZur

Learning Positivity 101
What is Optimism?
In psychology research optimism is referred to as the general expectation that good things will happen and that good things happen through internal permanent (stable) and universal (global) factors.
What is Positivity
Positivity is happiness through 10 main emotions: Joy, Gratitude, Serenity, Interest, Hope, Pride, Amusement, Inspiration, Awe, and Love.
Pessimist vs. Optimist
Pessimists give up more easily, because they believe that bad events or adversity that happen to them are permanent, their fault, or, at least, out of their control (bad luck); and often due to their shortcomings (Seligman, 2002, 2006). They feel no control over changing the situation and become hopeless and depressed about it. On the other hand, optimists resist helplessness and believe in temporary explanations for bad things that they can overcome if they persist (Seligman, 2002, 2006).
Example:
For example, if one buys zucchini from Ecuador that is rotten inside, that individual could attribute this to several different causes which then subsequently founds future optimistic or pessimistic expectations in the future.
Methods to increase the positivity ratio (3:1+)
For years we have studied what makes people unhappy - now we research what makes them happy and resilient.
"The latest scientific evidence tells us that positivity doesn't simply reflect success and health, it can also produce success and health" p. 18, Fredricksen.
"Happiness is the precursor to success, not merely the result" p. 3, Achor.
Research worth noticing:
Researchers at the University of Toronto increased positivity, negativity or neutrality in volunteers and found that the positive group had better visual attention and creativity.
Ashby, F. G., A. M. Isen, and A. U. Turken (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review 106, no. 3: 529-50
Research worth noticing:
Students did better on standardized tests when researchers had them generate positive
self-emotion in advance of the test.
Bryan T., and J. Bryan. (1991). Positive mood and math performance. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 24, pp 490-94.
Research worth noticing:
University of California Berkeley Haas School of Business looked at how positivity affects managers, and those with higher positivity made more accurate decisions and had better interpersonal skills.
Staw, B. M., and S. G. Barsade (1993). Affect and managerial performance: A test of the sadder-but-wiser vs. happier-and-smarter hypothesis. Administrative Science Quarterly. 39, pp 304-31
Research worth noticing:
In another study, the participants who entered into negotiations with higher positivity were more likely to close high-stakes deals.
Kopelman, S., A. S. Rosette, and L. Thompson (2006). The three faces of Eve: Strategic displays of ositive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 99, pp 81-101.
Research worth noticing:
Researchers found that sales agents who tested in the top most 25% optimistic sold 37% more insurance in their first 2 years on the job. Further, those sales agents who scored in the lower 50% pessimistic were two times more likely to quit the job. Positive leaders create positive changes.
Seligman, M. E. P., & Schulman, P. (1986). Explanatory style as a predictor of productivity and quitting among life insurance sales agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832-838. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.4.832

Sy, T., S. Cote, and R. Saavedra (2005). The contagious leader: Impact of the leader’s mood on the mood of the group members, group affective tone, and group process. Journal of Applied Psychology. 90, pp 295-305.
Research worth noticing:
Elderly men and women were tested for their explanatory style and their immune systems were analyzed. The patients with the pessimistic explanatory style statistically had lower rates of important immune bodies needed to maintain healthy immune functions.
Kamen-Siegel, L., Rodin, J., Seligman, M. E. P., & Dwyer, J. (1991). Explanatory style and cell-mediated immunity in elderly men and women. Health Psychology, 10, 229-235. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.10.4.229
Research worth noticing:
Schulman (1995) reviewed four studies on the relationship between explanatory style and scholastic success that showed explanatory style as a precursor and predictor of achievement among students. In a second study, researchers looked at groups of freshmen with high scores on SAT (formerly called the Scholastic Achievement Test and the Scholastic Aptitude Test) and IQ tests, and tested their explanatory style and their academic achievement was followed.
Schulman, P. (1995). Explanatory style and achievement in school and work. In G. M. Buchanan & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style (pp. 159-171). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Research worth noticing:
In a 35-year longitudinal study on Harvard University graduates researchers studied the explanatory style of the study participants and their physical health. They found that participants with a pessimistic style have higher rates of health problems between the ages of 45 and 60 years, and researchers concluded that pessimism early in life seems to lead to more health problems in middle to late adulthood.
Peterson, C., Vaillant, G. E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A 35-year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 23-27. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.55.1.23
Pessimist: Diets never work.
Optimist: Diets don't work when you eat out a lot.
8
Strengths
2
Gratitude Journal
"It asks us to be realistic about the present while maximizing our potential for the future. It is about learning how to cultivate the mindset and behaviors that have been empirically proven to fuel greater success and fulfillment. It is a work ethic. Happiness is not the belief that we don't need to change; it is the realization that we can." Shawn Achor, The Happiness Advantage, pg 24
1
Meditation
10
Surround Yourself
with Positivity
4
Five Focus Areas for Day/Life
6
Language
1:3 Ratio
3
Three Acts of Non-Random Kindness
Research worth noticing:
A study measured the initial positive emotions of 272 employees, then followed their job performance over 18 subsequent months and found that those who started happier were more likely to have better pay, raises, and evaluations at the end.
Staw, B., Sutton, R., and Pelled, L. (1994). Employee positive emotion and favorable outcomes at the workplace. Organization Science, 5, pp 51-71.
Research worth noticing:
A study found that the level of happiness a college freshman had could predict how high their income would be 19 years later in life, all irrespective of their initial level of wealth.
Diener, E., Nickerson, C., Lucas, R. E., and Sandvik, E. (2002). Dispositional affect and job outcomes. Social Indicators Research, 229-259.
Happiness is NOT all rainbows and unicorns and lollipop fields where nothing goes wrong. It is not Pollyanna.
Happiness is:
9
Health

References
Achor, S. (2010) The Happiness Advantage. NY: Crown Business
Ashby, F. G., A. M. Isen, and A. U. Turken (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review 106, no. 3: 529-50

Bryan T., and J. Bryan. (1991). Positive mood and math performance. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 24, pp 490-94.

Buckingham, M., & Clifton, D. O. (2001) Now discover your strengths. NY: Free Press.

Diener, E., Nickerson, C., Lucas, R. E., and Sandvik, E. (2002). Dispositional affect and job outcomes. Social Indicators Research, 229-259.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2009) Positivity: Top-notch research reveals the 3-to-1 ratio that will change your life. NY: Three Rivers Press

Kamen-Siegel, L., Rodin, J., Seligman, M. E. P., & Dwyer, J. (1991). Explanatory style and cell-mediated immunity in elderly men and women. Health Psychology, 10, 229-235. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.10.4.229

Kopelman, S., A. S. Rosette, and L. Thompson (2006). The three faces of Eve: Strategic displays of ositive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 99, pp 81-101.

Lyubomirsky, S. (2008) The how of happiness. NY: Penguin Books.

Peterson, C., Vaillant, G. E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A 35-year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 23-27. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.55.1.23
References
Schulman, P. (1995). Explanatory style and achievement in school and work. In G. M. Buchanan & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style (pp. 159-171). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Schulman, P. (1986). Explanatory style as a predictor of productivity and quitting among life insurance sales agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832-838. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.4.832

Seligman, M. E. P. (2002) Authentic Happiness. NY: Free Press

Seligman, M. E. P. (2006) Learned Optimism. NY: Vintage Books.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2011) Fourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. NY: Free Press.

Staw, B. M., and S. G. Barsade (1993). Affect and managerial performance: A test of the sadder-but-wiser vs. happier-and-smarter hypothesis. Administrative Science Quarterly. 39, pp 304-31

Staw, B., Sutton, R., and Pelled, L. (1994). Employee positive emotion and favorable outcomes at the workplace. Organization Science, 5, pp 51-71.

Sy, T., S. Cote, and R. Saavedra (2005). The contagious leader: Impact of the leader’s mood on the mood of the group members, group affective tone, and group process. Journal of Applied Psychology. 90, pp 295-305.


Journal:
Joy, Gratitude, Serenity, Interest, Hope, Pride, Amusement, Inspiration, Awe, and Love.
Last pg:
3 Acts of Kindness
5
Vision Board
7
Anticipation
Hope
Bucket List
Goals
The Tetris Effect
MindSet
Pay It Forward
Bring Others Up
Use Your Talents
Time for Nothing
Awe Walk
Mindfulness
Happier people are more likely to act in pro-social ways.
Emotional contagion
Isn't Trying to be Happy Selfish?

Nutrition
Sleep
Exercise
Growth mindset
Habit formation
Full transcript