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Aging Care Presentation on Ireland
Transcript of Aging Care Presentation on Ireland
Laura, & Marilyn IMMIGRATION WAVES BRIDGET O'MALLEY SOCIOECONOMIC CONSISTENT POVERTY COMPREHENSIVE SUPPORT
SYSTEMS Comprehensive supports to all older adults.
Free medical care, transportation, subsidized housing, generous government pension.
Without these systems, 80% of older adults in Ireland would be at risk of poverty. STATS GENDER ROLES HEALTH CARE PRACTICES GENDER DIFFERENCES Women live longer than men in general, making up roughly 56% of older adults.
Poverty rate for older women 3.8%, men 4%.
Rise in educational pursuits and fall in unemployment for both men and women.
Labor market mostly men. Men are primary breadwinners.
Women make 60% of a man's salary.
Pay and professional achievement are barriers for women.
Perceptions about women wanting a home and children are shifting.
Women have children later in life between 30-34 years of age. GENDER VALUES 90% of Irish are Catholic.
Catholicism is the main influence on traditional values in Ireland and political/social institutions are heavily influenced by Catholic morality.
Age and gender are predictors of religious beliefs.
Males and younger individuals are less likely to accept main ideas of religion than women and older individuals.
Differences in public/private behaviors are generally accepted. FAMILY PATTERNS GENDER AND OLDER ADULTS Women are traditionally the caregivers.
More women attend senior citizens events than men.
Rural men are most at risk of living alone and suffer from isolation than women of same age. FAMILIES OF THE PAST Traditionally Patriarchal.
Stem family noted in rural families.
Married later in life or not at all. In the 1930's half of 30-34 year old were single and 27% of those ages 50-54 were single.
Traditionally large families if married. Average children born to a family in the 1960's was 4.
Many families emigrated to U.S. and other countries due to poor economy.
Divorce was opposed by Catholic church and illegal. CONTEMPORARY FAMILIES AGING FAMILY MEMBERS High population of older adults never married nor had any biological children.
Older adults typically live alone and separate from children.
Other family members such as cousins, nephews and aunts are taking on the role of caring for aging family members due to older adult never being married. Private and public.
Governed by Healthcare Act 2004 and managed by Health Service Executive (HSE).
Provides health and social services to everyone in Ireland.
All citizens are entitled to health care and those who do not get free services pay according to their economic status.
Maternity and child care covered for first 6 months.
Citizens who have above average incomes are required to pay subsidized hospital charges. SERVICES PROVIDED Community Care Services run by HSE (includes nursing, home help, day care and respite care).
Most hospitals are operated by HSE. There are also voluntary and teaching hospitals. Long "waiting lists" for surgery.
Emergency care is managed by HSE.
Dental and Optical are free for children and for those who hold a medical card. Others can get these services at a reduced cost by utilizing other programs and/or private insurance. PRESCRIPTION DRUGS Prescription drugs and medical equipment are available for free or at a reduced cost.
Those who have a medical card and have a chronic illness do not have to pay for any of these costs. FAMILY BACKGROUND IMMIGRATION EXPERIENCE ASSIMILATION JOHN O'HARA Born in 1934.
Grew up on farm in Mayo County, Ireland in 1930's.
Five other siblings.
Family faced severe financial hardships.
Briget enjoyed school but it was very formal and strict. Older sister Mary came to U.S. first. Her parents made her come because of economic hardship of family.
Briget had a choice to come to U.S. and decided to join her sister Mary. She came to U.S. when she was 16 yrs old.
Wanted to work and help family back in Ireland.
Was almost approved to get Visa but was rejected first time due to her disclosing her father's depression.
Had to wait another year before approved to enter U.S.
Came to U.S. on a boat called Britanica. The voyage took 10 days and they docked at New York Harbor. Overall positive experience.
She had no expectations about life in U.S. She was open to all experiences.
Loved school and assimilated well with peers.
Moved into a mostly Italian, Irish neighborhood.
Plenty of work opportunities. Worked for RR.
Joined Convent - nun for 29 years.
Well educated, received 3 master's degrees and was working on Phd.
Was a teacher for many years. Loved it. LIFE NOW Currently resided in an assisted living facility
Continues to write poetry on a small scale
Continued contact with family in Ireland. Visits every summer
Visits and cares for older sister Mary who resides in a nursing home
Spiritual component still very important. Mass every day.
Very active lifestyle. Likes to read and stay active by walking and shopping. Diverse families. Same-sex partners, cohabitation, children outside of marriage. In 2005, 11.6% co-habitated and in 2006, 1.71% were same sex partners living together.
Marriages have increased in recent years but still relatively low when compared to other countries. From 1997-2005 marriages for males have increased by 1.5%; for females 2% increase.
Smaller families than the past. In 2005 there were 1 to 2 children born per family.
Marriage occurs later in life 33.8 for men and 31 for women.
Marriage is no longer a gateway to having children or cohabitation.
Divorce became legal in 1997.
Less likely to divorce once married.
More women in the workforce. FAMILY BACKGROUND Born 1934, 4th of 6 children.
Well-to-do business family in Dublin.
Only older brother married.
Attended college, seminary, became Catholic Priest.
Decided to study at UC Berkeley. LIFE NOW Left church in 2000 (age 66).
Became Unitarian Universalist minister with congregation in rural Minnesota.
Married at age 70.
Retired at 75; moved back to San Francisco.
Remains an activist.
At 78, physically healthy and mentally sharp.
Travels internationally with spouse, annual UU work-travel trips.
Constantly learning, updating; technology maven. ASSIMILATION IMMIGRATION Immigrated to US on student visa, 1958.
Intended to earn PhD in theology, studying US Catholicism.
Became caught up in civil rights, student movements.
Decided to stay in U.S.; 7-year process for becoming citizen.
His activism nearly cost him citizenship, had to 'lie low' until 1966. Low rate of "consistent poverty": Ireland uses a combination of 2 criterias to determine presence of "consistent poverty."
They include 50% or less of median
Being able to afford 2 of 11 items on a standard "deprivation" scale. Ireland total population is 4.5 million.
535,393 or 11% are aged 65 or older.
In the EU older adult populations average 16.8%
By 2041, it is expected 1.4 million Irish will be aged 65+, or 25% of population.
By 2041, the number of people in Ireland aged 80+ will have quadrupled to 440,000. OUTCOMES OF COMPREHENSIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS Gender gap is closing rapidly.
Annual income of older women is 13,484 Euros; of men, 14,513 Euros.
Rate of consistent poverty is essentially equivalent (3.8% for older women and 3.6% for older men. Felt 'at home' in U.S. right away.
U.S. education system very different from Ireland's.
Kindred spirits at Berkeley; excited by radical activism of 1960's
He was considered 'quaint' or 'attractive due to his accent.
After earning Phd, he placed at church in San Francisco.
Late 60's -90's radical activist priest. Middle class Protestant tradespeople, income opportunities and large protestants in the U.S.
Settled in New England EARLY 1900's 1980's LATE 1700'S - EARLY 1800'S MID 1800's Approximately 1.7 million lower class Catholics escaping potato famine, opportunities unskilled workers.
Settled in northeastern cities Smaller wave of young rural Irish, fleeing declining agricultural sector.
No work in Irish cities.
Drawn to U.S. by unskilled jobs in manufacturing 1950's Two primary groups emigrated to U.S.:
Rural and uneducated, seeking work in U.S.
Urban college graduates taking advantage of opportunities. Approximately 0.5% of working age population emigrated from Ireland due to economic decline.
Many immigrated permanently to U.S. TWO -TIERED SYSTEM ELDERLY AND HEALTH CARE Carer's benefits and respite care grant available for caregivers.
Financial support for those older adults who need long-term home care; operated by HSE .
The individual makes a contribution towards their care and the state covers the rest.
There is an application process and the state will determine what you can contribute based off your income and assets. HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK Health care traced back to workhouses in the 1840's for poor and sick after famine.
1948 Dr. Noel Browne became minister of health. Introduced health care reforms, such as spread of TB. Within 3 years death rate was halved.
During WWII there was a call for a national health care service.
In 1947, Dept. of health was established and catholic church had a huge influence on health care practice during 50s, 60s, and 70s.
1970 the Health Act was passed. RESOURCES Department of Social and Community Affairs. (2004). Families and Family Life in Ireland Challenges for the Future. Government of Ireland.
Department of Social and Family Affairs. (2008). Families in Ireland an Analysis of Patterns and Trends. Government of Ireland.
Department of Social Protection
WSCF - Europe