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Mastering the sounds of the language. David Nunan
Transcript of Mastering the sounds of the language. David Nunan
The universe of sounds.
1. Contrastive phonology.
2. Recent theory and research.
3. Pronunciation in practice.
4. Researching pronunciation.
- phonetic & phonological contrast.
- sounds distinction among speakers from different languages.
languages vary on their sound systems in terms of segmental and supra-segmental features.
spanish & japanese have few vowels. Arabic, on the other hand, has 32 consonants
All the phonetic symbols and the sounds that are produced upon them belong to the segmental category.
Walsh (1973) Argued that supra-segmental features of stress, rhythm and intonnation are much more important for intelligible pronunciation.
Recent theory and research.
Willing (1988) found that among 517 learners, pronunciation received the highest rating overall on their priorities when learning a second language
Stevick (1982) stated the importance of using drills although it is so necessary to vary them.
The majority of pronunciation features can be formally taught, but some aspects need to be acquired by use and language exposure of learners.
the role of communication.
Long term goals with sub-objectives.
Gradually eliminate the l1 interference.
Should be learned with integration of the rest of the language, not isolated.
Now, let's practice
Factors Affecting Pronunciation Learning
The native language
The age factor
Amount of exposure
Motivation and Concern for good pronunciation
Pronunciation in Practice
Stress on phrases
Intonation of certain expressions