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Transcript of Shanghai
Hélène Arvis, Manon Layrol,Marine Echegut
Evolution of Shanghai
A world city
Table of content
II. Evolution of Shanghai
1. Assets/constraints of the location
2. Evolution of the city through time
3. Population growth and decline through time
III. A World City
1. Social characteristics
2. Urban functions
3. Urban organizations
IV. Issues (social, economic, environmental, and solutions for a more sustainable urban development)
Issues of Shanghai
Evolution through time
Issues - Economic & Social
- strong dependance on foreign investment (US$8B/y in the 90's)
- high reliance on Hong-Kong capital
- not internationally competitive (no high tech, small scale enterprises, inward looking, ...)
- cheap labor attracted from abroad (2.51 M in 1993)
- poverty, no sanitation, crowded living (often illegal)
- unsanitary housing, overloaded transportation system
Population growth in Shanghai
Shanghai is characterized by its seven social classes
Solution for a sustainable development
Extreme Poverty Level
Shanghai is the largest Chinese city by population and the largest city proper by population in the world.
: 6,340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi)
: The language spoken by most people in the city is "Shanghainese", a dialect of Wu Chinese, while the official language nationwide is Mandarin
Religion in Shanghai:
Non religious or traditional faiths (84.9%)
- Located on the Yangtze River
- Close to the Pacific Ocean
- Flat land area
- Many rivers and lakes
- Rich water resources
-> Shanghai is the world’s largest port.
Pollution in Shanghai
Wealthy Class (millionaires)
Wealthy Class (billionaires)
Monthly income: below RMB 1000
Annual household income: below RMB 30 000
Mainly unemployed and beggars, local Shanghainese
Live in shanties or resettlement houses in the outskirts of town
Monthly income: RMB 1000 to 3000
Annual household income: RMB 30 000 to 50 000
Generally sales persons, construction workers, waiters, corporate/government personnel
Live in small neighborhoods with their family, non-Shangainese rent one-room apartments
Monthly income: RMB 3000 to 10 000
Annual household income: RMB 50 000 to 150 000
Mostly civil servants and staff of private corporations, technical/skilled personnel, middle enterprise managers, self-employed, and starting businessmen
Shanghainese live with their parents, others rent apartments, some buy their own houses
Annual individual salary: RMB 150 000 to 400 000
Annual household income: RMB 200 000 to 500 000
Have RMB 1 000 000 to 10 000 000 in assets
Executives of private enterprises, civil servants with "hidden: incomes, senior technical staff, owners of private enterprises, people in the performing arts
Most are in the process of paying for homes
Individual annual income: RMB 400 000 to 2 000 000
Annual household income: RMB 500 000 to 2 000 000
Assets worth RMB 50 000 000
Business owners and executives of large corporations, celebrities, second-generation rich
Live in inner subdivisions and holiday villas
Top of the social pyramid
Annual income: RMB 2 000 000 or more
Entrepreneurs or senior officials waiting for retirement, have 3 to 5 businesses
Live in inner subdivisions and villas
Never have to work
Their parents or they control Shanghai and China, financially and economically
Live in the Xintiandi area or mansions in the Binjiang District
1 county (Chongming)
Structurally divided into regions:
Inner core (Huangpu and Jing'an)
Exurbs or outer suburbs
Finance and trade
Shanghai is China's leading industrial and manufacturing center
large, skilled, innovative workforce
well-grounded scientific research supportive of industry
cooperation among producers
excellent communication and supply facilities.
Iron and steel industry
Machine and tool industry
Chemical and petrochemical industries
Issues - Environmental & Social
Extreme population density (up to 160.000 persons per square km)
Housing delapidated without basic sanitary services (lilong)
Retail trade in consumer goods was managed by the First Commercial Bureau until 1995
Independent business groups are now responsible for wholesaling, distribution, and warehousing of goods
Local commerce bureaus manage smaller retail stores and wholesaling organizations while a separate corporation controls larger retail stores.
Shanghai International Commerce Center
Shanghai has two major banks
People’s Construction Bank
Bank of China
Manage capital investment funds for state enterprises
British and foreign banks have offices in Shanghai
Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
underwrite foreign trade transactions and exchange foreign currency for trading operations
The Shanghai World Finance Center aims to attract the world's finance with its first-class financial centers
In domestic trade, Shanghai's imports exceed its exports
exports industrial products to all parts of China
imports mostly unprocessed food grains, petroleum and coal, construction materials, and industrial raw materials
In foreign trade, value of exports is superior to that of imported products
Shanghai is a province-level administrative unit
Controlled by the central government in Beijing
Has a dual party-government system
Mayor and CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary are the highest officials
Party Standing Committee is the highest political body
Since the Cultural Revolution, China's administration has been in the process of readjustment
1967- Shanghai Municipal Revolutionary Committee
Mid 1970s-Shanghai People's Congress is in charge of commissions, offices, and bureaus which compose the municipal government
Shanghai has two major airports
Hongqiao Airport for domestic flights
Pudong International Airport is one of China's busiest since 1999
Shanghai's port is the world's busiest
Both a seaport and a riverport
Important hub for the region and the most important gateway of foreign trade
Shanghai's railway network illustrates the effort to balance export and domestic development needs of the city's industrial economy
Terminus of two major lines: Hu-Ning line and Hu-Hang-Yong line
Shanghai is also on the end of several spur lines
Municipal government building
Shanghai People's Congress
Shanghai has an ambitious program of cultural development - "Post Expo"
Goal is to become a cultural metropolis before 2020
"1122 initiative" - establish the city as a center for creative design, international cultural exchange and fashion, and as a hub of modern cultural industry and creative talent.
Developing new public cultural facilities
Constructing a theatrical performing arts cluster
Promoting cultural facilities in western Hongqiao
Promoting festivals and events
Launching projects with Western creative organizations
- More than 20% of Shanghai tap water is supplied from the Huangpu.
- Factories discharge their chemical waste without sufficient treatment
- Poor underground water quality
- Local authorities favor economic development over environmental protection
A popular joke at the time was that Beijing residents could enjoy free smokes (cigarettes) just by going outside and breathing, while Shanghai residents could enjoy free pork soup just by turning on the tap water.
High level of pollution caused by:
- High uses of coal -> cut life expectancies in the North of China by more than five years compared to the south.
- Dense traffic in the city (As of 2012 -> 2.2 million registered vehicles in Shanghai).
The price being paid for air pollution in China is very high:
- about 8,572 premature deaths
- US$1.08 billion in economic losses, occurred due to excessive PM2.5 in the cities of Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xi'an and Beijing in 2012.
I. Financial areas
Lujiazui Financial and Trade Zone in Pudong New Area
Includes banks, stock exchanges, and insurance companies
The Bund ("Oriental Wall Street") is home to many foreign financial institutions
II. Commercial Areas
Prosperous commercial areas are scattered throughout the city and in the suburbs
Nanjing Road (Huangpu and Jian'an), New Shanghai Commercial Center (Pudong New Area)
III. Tourism Areas
Three main tourist areas of Shanghai:
Huangpu River sightseeing area: Huangpu River, the Bund, Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Jinmao Tower
People's Square: Grand Theater, Museum and Art Museum
Yuyuan area: Yuyuan Garden, Old Street and the Confucian Temple.
Shanghai is one of the first cities in the world, and is now in direct competition with global cities such as Tokyo, New York, Paris and London.
Shanghai is one of the major poles of tomorrow's world. To consolidate its development, Shanghai has close relations with the spaces that surround it and has developed a network of exchanges within its territory.
Difference between slums and downtown
Highly populated street
Shanghai is located on the east tip of the Yangtze River Delta and halfway along China's eastern coastline. Due to its advantageous geographical location, Shanghai has become a large and prosperous port city, relying heavily on the presence of the first Chinese river, the Yangtze.
Shanghai, strategically located, is an emerging global metropolis, having affirmed itself economically and is expanding culturally; however, this progress is threatened by environmental, economic and social issues.
Masterplan - Expo 2013
- Aims at transforming downtown Shanghai into a sustainable community
- Urban Renaissance approach, incorporating the historic lilong housing district
- Encourages local trade, social interactions
- High quality affordable living environments
Natural resources are not abundant in the region. Natural vegetation is hardly seen except in a few areas. There are just cultivated crops, trees and flowers.
The area is not a good habitat for wild animals, so animals there are always domestic. Shanghai also lacks mineral resources and energy sources. Only crude oil and natural gas are found.
The metropolis of Shanghai is the most populous and richest city, and one of the three major metropolitan centers of China. It has become a symbol of modernization and the rise power of China since the economic reforms launched in 1978.
In the center of the chinese development
As Shanghai emerges as a global metropolis, the city is affirming itself economically while expanding culturally.
However, we have seen that this megacity is threatened by environmental, economic and social issues.
Shanghai is a huge city filled with social disparities, but change is being brought about as more and more people become sensible to their environment and begin to make plans for the future.
Urban Transformations in Shanghai
The growth of Shanghai has always been linked to its degree of openness and the international role from the colonial period and the inter-war to the renewal years Post-Mao 1980.
The economic reforms after 1978 are very revealing of Shanghai's evolution.
The city now focuses on an important part of China's wealth : it has an average per capita GDP well above the average Chinese and has an HDI level equivalent to that of a developed country.
Shanghai is also engaged in the organization of international dimension of events (sporting or cultural events).
Since 1990, the state has supported the implementation of new business areas oriented towards foreign trade. Over the years, a large proportion of the poorest population has been pushed towards peripheries increasingly distant in favor of new social strata to benefit economic reforms.
Urban growth results in the urbanization of agricultural land.The Pudong New Area is the new modern showcase of Shanghai.This new dynamic neighborhood however results in increasing traffic, congestion of major highways and railways and air pollution and important waters.
With the opening to foreign companies and the liberalization of trade, China has become the workshop of the world, and the Shanghai port is the door. Its port functions have experienced very strong growth , making it the first commercial port and the first terminal container to the world.
Shanghai has experienced a population increase of 0.9% in 2008 despite a larger number of deaths than births over the last 16 years.
There were 96,700 births and 107,000 deaths last year. The registered population in 2007 was 13,710,000 people, an increase of 121,800.
The number of deaths exceeded that of births in 1993 in Shanghai. It is also the end of the baby boom for the city and entering a period of aging, according to an official from the Shanghai Statistics Bureau.
The migrant population of the city increased. By the end of 2012, the migrant population in Shanghai exceeded 9.6 million
Baosteel Group Corporation
Top: Bank of China
Bottom: Shanghai World Finance Center
Top: People's Square
Left: Lujiazui seen from the Bund
Fluvial Axes: The Yangtze River
The Three Gorges Dam
(the largest hydroelectric dam and the largest hydroelectric plant in the world)
10th - 13th centuries:
village Huating was renamed Shanghai (= "sea") and became a significant city
forced opening of the port of Shanghai to foreign powers (Treaty of Nanking)
1846 - 1914:
implementation of foreign concessions in the city. The port thrives on the river frontage
foreign concessions are given back to the Chinese regime
foundation of the People's Republic of China (Communist)
economic development of the inner regions of China to the detriment of Shanghai
the government of Deng Xiaoping launched a policy of economic reform and of ppening to the outside (SEZ = Special Economic Zones), which attracts capital foreign and multinational firms
installation of the first container crane at the Port of Shanghai
development of communication infrastructures and the Pudong area
Shanghai World Expo