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alexandra bechtold

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Anatomy

(Not coming apart)

embryo contains either 47 or 45 chromosomes.
Somatic chromosomes 1-22
acrocentric no P arm

-ologies and such
Types of joints

ball & socket


When humans begin

.Conception usually occurs when secondary oocyte is 1/3 distance from the fallopian tube.
.Corona Radiata is the outer layer of cells of oocyte that protects against bacteria and acidic environment.
.Zona Pellucida is a gelatinous glycoprotein layer inside of the Corona Radiata with special receptor sites for sperm attachment.

Females have 5-6 million oocytes at 3 months fetal age.
Only 1/2 million still exist at her birth.
Oocytes will rest at Phrophase 1.

Rapid cell division producing multiple daughter cells.
cell division, results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.
Down Syndrome
Trisomy 21
nearly 1 in 700 births
deceleration of physical and mental development
stunted growth
mental retardation
flattened nose
small teeth
flexible ligaments
eyelid crease
shortened extremities
oval palate
Simean crease
short neck
rounded ears
Al Aish
Monosomy 21
Full monosomy 21 are not functional
4% result in live birth
80% die within the first year
Heart conditions
Cleft lip and palate
Edwards Syndrome
Triysomy 18
Second most common autosoal trysomy after down syndrome
1 in 6000 births
8% survive first year
1% survive to age 10
often no thumbs
small placenta develops with single umbilical artery
Nondisjunction of sex chromosomes
Klinefelter Syndrome
Turner Syndrome
Jacobs Karyotype
Klinefelter Syndrome Xxy
Weaker muscles and reduced strength
External genitalia underdeveloped and often infertile
Slight breast development
Body hair sparse
Tall and lanky
weaker bones, lower energy
Slightly lower IQ
Development is delayed-crawl,talk,walk later
1 in 500 births-Male
Turner Syndrome-XO
45 chromosomes lack of an - Female
Tend to be under 5 feet tall
Slight mental retardation
Low irregular hairline
Underdeveloped breasts
No widening of the birth canal, infertile
heart defects, disease
Neck webbing
Jacobs Karyotype-Xyy

Tall, aggressive, criminal in behavior, antisocial
Normal or higher IQ
Cystic Fibrosis
Affects outward secreting glands (lungs, pancreas, salivary, sweat.)
mucous builds in lungs.
vibrate and clap mucous loose to be coughed out of lungs
digestive difficulties
severe heart exhaustion
95% of males are sterile
33,000 cases in U.S.
Autosomal recessive 1/16 adults carry
Cerebral Palsy
Affects a persons ability to move and maintain balance and posture.
most common motor disability in childhood.
Abnormal brain development.
seizures-vision loss-hearing loss-speech loss-scoliosis-lower IQ
RH blood incompatible with parents.
Drug use during pregnancy.
low birth weight, premature birth, or multiple births.
Normal at birth, within days become anorexic.
vomiting, yellow jaundice, enlargement of the liver, wasting of body tissues, extreme weight loss.
Can cause liver and kidney failure, brain damage and cataracts can be prevented through avoidance of galactose.
Autosomal recessive
Similar to lactose intolerance.
Muscular Dystrophy
Progressive muscle weakness.
early symptoms begin between ages 2 and 5.
enlargement of calf muscles.
Affects the muscles of the upper trunk and arms.
Major muscles are affected.
Early Symptoms, falling, wadding walk.
3 to 5 muscle weakness more obvious.
Improvement ages 3 to 7.
Age 8 to 9, inability to walk or stand alone.
Lung capacity may decrease
Shortening of muscles and loss of muscle tissues.
30% with disease have no family history of it.
X-linked recessive?
Death by 20ish
Cause by a deficiency of the liver enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase.
Can produce mental retardation if it is not treated early.
Controlled diet can control disease.
newborns can be weak and feed poorly. Other symptoms may include, vomiting, irritability, red skin rash and mousy body odor.
Microcephaly, widely spaced teeth, coarse skin.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Develop due to low levels of hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
Acute attacks of pain in chest.
Respiratory infection
delayed growth and puberty.
poor eyesight
pale color tongue and lips
painful inflammation of fingers and toes.
drastic increase for stroke
Most common in those of African ancestry, also Greek and Italian.
Some immunity to malaria.
life expectancy of 60 years.
bone marrow transplant.
On chromosome #15
Autosomal dominant.
Skeleton, heart and blood vessels, eyes, lungs, nervous system and skin can be affected.
Marfan syndrome is caused by a defect in the gene that makes fibrillin.
Heart murmur
genetic counseling for mothers that might pass on the disease.
Athletic, tall
Sex linked recessive
impair blood
Sex linked recessive
impair blood clotting
present in 1 out of 5000 male births.
Hemophilia C is not sex linked and may affect both sexes.
episodes called bleeds may occur
minor injuries may be fatal
life span is 50 to 60 years
you can get a blood transfusion, one treatment requires 10,000 blood donations.
Queen Victoria (the royal disease.)
Tay Sachs
Around 3 to 5 months
Destruction of the central nervous system.
Fats in brain
abnormal startle response
muscle spasms
feeding difficulties
muscle weakness
vision abnormalities
increase loss of vision
12 months
loosing learning skills and coordination
child is limp (flaccid.)
can be detected through amniocentisis.
autosomal recessive
affects children of Eastern European Jewish Ancestry
1 in 30 jews carry the gene.
Williams Syndrome

Elfin face, widely spaced teeth, small chin, puffiness around eyes, small head
Oversensitive hearing
sitting, walking, language delayed
Friendly, talkative
Blue or green eyes star like pattern in iris
low birth weight
heart disorders
hernias at navel
mild mental retardation
premature puberty
DELETION of 20 genes
1 in 20,000 births
Huntington's Chorea
osteon- basic structure of the bone
central canal-The central canal contains one ore more blood vessels.
lacuna- cavities in the bony matrix for holding the osteocytes
canaliculi- Connecting tubes to deliver nutrients to osteocytes
bony matrix-fibrous protein that gives the tissue strength and resilience and calcium compounds are deposited within the matrix


muscle jerks
loss f coordination
10-25 year progressive course
impaired speech
personality changes
memory loss
eventual paralysis
Starts in mid 30's or40's
Autosomal dominant
trinucleotide repeat CAGCAGCAGCAGCAG a longer repeat leads to earlier onset of the disease
1 in 10,000 in the USA are affected.

1. Primary spermatocytes are formed from the spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules of testes by mitosis.

2. Each primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis 1 and forms the two haploid secondary spermatocytes.

3. Each secondary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis 11 and forms two haploid spermatids.

4. Each primary spermatocyte forms four haploid spermatids.


1. Primary oocytes are formed from the oogonia in the ovary of the foetus.

2. Each primary oocyte undergoes meiosis 1 and forms haploid secondary oocytes and haploid first polar body.

3. The secondary oocyte undergoes meiosis II and forms one ovum and one second polar body.

4. Each primary oocyte forms one ovum and three polar bodies.
"Genotype" is an organism's full hereditary information. "Phenotype" is an organism's actual observed properties


Synovial Joint Parts
Cat cry at birth 1/3 will lose cry by age 2
partial deletion of chromosome 5 P arm
low birth weight and poor growth
aggressive behavior
excessive drooling
slight microcephaly
heart difficulties
synovial joint:

Joint capsule:

articular cartilage:


synovial membrane
synovial fluid:




fat pad:

Fragile X
Partial breakdown of X chromosome
IQ may be as low as 40
most common form of retardation in males
large protruding ears
long narrow face
enlarged testes and generally starile.
Patau Syndrome trysomy 13
4% result in live birth
more than 80% die within the first year
severe heart conditions
cleft lip palate
Osteoblast: Creates new bone cells
Osteoclast: Destroys bone cells, or cleans up bone waist.
Blastocyst: is a structure formed in the early development of mammals. In humans, its formation begins 5 days after fertilization during the germinal stage of development. It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo.
greater tubercle
Deltoid tuberosity
Illiac crest
obturator foramen
Lumbar Vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae
Cervical Vertebrae
Xiphoid process
Thoracic cage
Patella-Knee bone
A branch of medicine dealing with the skin, its structure, functions and diseases.
Greater trochanter
lesser trochanter
linea aspera
medial condyle
Endocrinology covers such human functions as the coordination of metabolism, respiration, reproduction, sensory perception, and movement along with hormones and endocrine glands.

lateral condyle
The branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the stomach and the intestines
The branch of medicine focused on the health and care of old people.

the scientific study of old age,
the process of aging, and the particular
problems of old people.
The initial cells in this pathway are called spermatogonia, which yield primary spermatocytes by mitosis. The primary spermatocyte divides meiotically into two secondary spermatocytes; each secondary spermatocyte then completes meiosis as it divides into two spermatids. These develop into mature spermatozoa, also known as sperm cells. Thus, the primary spermatocyte gives rise to two cells, the secondary spermatocytes, and the two secondary spermatocytes by their subdivision produce four spermatozoa.[
the branch of physiology and medicine that deals with the functions and diseases specific to women and girls, esp. those affecting the reproductive system.
The science encompassing
the medical study of the
blood and blood-producing organs
A stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which condensed and highly coiled chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.
the study of the microscopic
structure of tissues.
The branch of biomedicine concerned
with the structure and function of the
immune system, innate and acquired
immunity, the bodily distinction of
self from nonself, and laboratory
techniques involving the interaction
of antigens with specific antibodies.
that branch of pediatric
medicine concerned
with the newborn; the
diagnosis and treatment
of neonate
The science that deals with the kidneys, especially their functions or diseases.
A medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities, a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amnion surrounding the fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities. To determine whether a baby has certain genetic disorders or a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down syndrome. Amniocentesis
What babe?
the branch of medicine
or biology that deals with
the anatomy, functions, and organic
disorders of nerves and
nervous system.
What power
power of VOODOO
the branch of medicine
and surgery concerned
with childbirth and the care
of women giving birth.
the study and treatment of tumors :(
the branch of medicine
concerned with the study and treatment
of disorders and diseases
of the eye.
the study of diseases of
the ear and throat
the science of the
causes and effects of diseases,
esp. the branch of medicine that deals
with the laboratory examination of
samples of body tissue for
diagnostic or
forensic purposes.
the branch of medicine
dealing with children
and their diseases.
the branch of medicine
concerned with the uses,
effects, and modes of
action of drugs.
the treatment of
the feet and their ailments.
the study and treatment of mental illness, emotional disturbance, and abnormal behavior.
the science dealing with X-rays and other high-energy radiation, esp. the use of such radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
the branch of science
concerned with the
nature, effects, and
detection of poisons
the branch of medicine
and physiology concerned
with the function and
disorders of the
urinary system.
a fracture of the bone, occurring typically in children, in which one side of the bone is broken and the other only bent.
A fracture in which the line of break runs obliquely to the axis of the bone. oblique fracture,. a slanted fracture of the shaft along the bone's long axis.
A spiral fracture is a bone fracture occurring when torque is applied along the axis of a bone. While torsional forces are being applied along the parallel axis of a bone, planes perpendicular to this axis are not affected.
A fracture in which the line of break forms a right angle with the axis of the bone.
a fracture that extends partially through a bone with displacement of the bony fragments
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
the movement of a limb or other part away from the midline of the body

moving of a body part toward
the central axis of the body
a joint so articulated
as to move freely
Joint Capsule:
a ligamentous sac that
surrounds the articular cavity
of a freely movable joint, is
attached to the bones, completely
encloses the joint, and is composed
of an outer fibrous membrane and
an inner synovial membrane

Articular Cartilage:
The cartilage covering
the articular surfaces of the bones
forming a synovial joint. Protects
bones from excess friction
in movement.
a short band of tough, flexible,
fibrous connective tissue that
connects two bones or cartilages
or holds together a joint.
Synovial Membrane:
a thin membrane in synovial
(freely moving) joints that
lines the joint capsule
and secretes synovial
Synovial Fluid
a transparent viscid
lubricating fluid secreted
by a membrane of an
articulation, bursa,
or tendon sheath
A cartilage disk that acts
as a cushion between the
ends of bones that meet
in a joint
a flexible but inelastic
cord of strong fibrous collagen
tissue attaching a muscle
to a bone.
a fluid-filled sac or
saclike cavity, esp. one
countering friction
at a joint
Fat Pad
A fat pad is a mass
of closely packed fat cells
surrounded by fibrous
tissue septa. They may
be extensively supplied
with capillaries and
nerve endings.
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