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The Fall Of Rome
Transcript of The Fall Of Rome
Diocletian judged the empire too vast for any one emperor to rule effectively, so he divided the empire among four vice-emperors, who were also military men The story goes that Constantine had a vision of the words "in hoc signo vinces" ('in this sign you will conquer', but in Greek: ) upon a cross and that this vision prompted Constantine to pledge to convert if he actually did win the battle at the Milvian Bridge. Since Constantine was the victor, the vision led to his conversion to Christianity. Constantine probably experienced his great "in hoc signo vinces" vision in 312. On December 25, 323, Constantine exempted Christians from pagan lustration rites Constantine became emperor of the Western and Eastern halves of the empire. His mother was a Christian, and Constantine became Christianity's patron. And because of his power he became a force within the church, recognized by bishops as the authority at the Church's first ecumenical (general) council, at Nicea, to decide the nature of Jesus Christ. Bishop Arius and Arian Christianity lost. The doctrine of the Trinity was accepted. He divided the Empire among his sons to rule after his death. Instead of co-ruling the Empire, the sons divided the Empire further by fighting among each other and with powerful generals.
The imperial government remained corrupt. Government positions were hereditary (given to friends and family), honest government officials were rare, and the conquered peoples who made up the empire continued to detest officials as they did soldiers. Christian emperors had not changed that. The leadership necessary to turn the empire was not about the come from its emperors. Rule was divided again between two emperors. Valentinian I, who rule from 364 to 375, was emperor of the western half of the empire, and his brother, Valens, was emperor in the eastern half, also beginning in the year 364. Both were intelligent military men dedicated to doing right, but they could not stop the German invasions. Theodosius reunites the Empire, but it doesn't last beyond his reign. At his death, the empire is divided by his sons, Arcadius, in the East, and Honorius, in the West. The Germans continue to Invade the Empire Theodosius son's were too young and inexperianced to led, so he had his favorite General, Stilicho, to help his sons rule the Empire The leader of the German tribe, Visigoths, was King Alaric.
For many years the Visigoths have been looking for a place in the Roman Empire to call home.
The Romans would make deals to keep peace with the Visigoths but would often misled them and sell thier children to slavery. Because of this, the Visigoths did not trust the Romans and often caused destruction within the Empire Alaric believed the Empire was at a weak point in time and ordered his people to attack many parts of the Empire including Greece For many years Stilicho was able to defend the city of Rome
and it's young Emperor Honorius from barbarians such as Alaric The young Emperor Honorius was surronded by corrupt advisors who only wanted power, they convinced Honourius to kill Stilicho for being a trator Without Silicho's help, Alaric was able to attack the city of Rome Encouraged by the death of Stilicho, in the autumn of 408, Alaric and the Visigoths crossed the Alps and poured into Italy Rome shut its gates as Alaric and his army approached. Alaric and his army besieged the city, and its inhabitants grew hungry. Plague appeared within Rome, and corpses appeared in its streets. Rome's Senate decided to negotiate with Alaric and suggested it was not afraid of a fight. Alaric laughed and demanded gold, silver, moveable property and some three thousand pounds of Indian pepper in exchange for sparing the city and its inhabitants. Alaric gave Germans and slaves in the city safe passage out, some of whom joined his ranks, increasing Alaric's forces to about 40,000. Honorius, felt obliged to make peace with the Visigoths. His sister, Placidia, married their new leader, Atauf. And, in 418, the Visigoths were granted a legal domain in southwestern Gaul. The Visigoths, like other German tribes, finally found land within the Roman Empire. Some Germans adopted roman culture, others refuse to adopt Roman Culture or Roman religion (Christianity) At this time Rome had a new Enemy, The Huns Valentinian had fathered no son, and a scheming aristocrat of Senatorial rank, Petronius Maximus, seized the throne. Within a few months, as invading Vandals were again in Italy and approaching Rome, a mob in Rome killed the new emperor. The emperor in the east, Marcian, refused to help defend Rome from the Vandals. Rome in 455 was plundered for a second time in 45 years, and after nineteen days the Vandals sailed away with thousands of prisoners, including Valentinian's widow and his two daughters. Rome's instability in power succession was now to give the western half of the empire its final blow. The emperor of the eastern half of the empire sent a nephew, Julius Nepos, into the western half of the empire behind an army. A military commander in the west drove Nepos into exile and appointed his son, Romulus Augustus,14, as emperor. He was to be the last emperor in the western half of the empire. Nepos sent an Ostrogothic commander with an army, Odoacer, to the west. He overthrew Romulus and declared himself King of Italy. Romulus was the last of Rome's emperors seated in the western half of the empire. Theodoric, another German king, killed Odoacer, and Theodoric's troops killed all of Odoacer's relatives and cut down Odoacer's troops wherever they could find them Theodoric established himself as King of Italy -- not as Rome's emperor. The family line of emperors in the western half of the empire had come to an end. The west was now to be dominated by Germans.
Emperors in the east still ruled over Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine and Egypt, to be known as the Byzantine empire -- Byzantium the former name of the city of Constantinople. The emperors at Constantinople saw themselves as the rightful heirs of a rule that dated back to Augustus Caesar. They saw themselves as the sole and legitimate rulers of the Roman Empire. Hired Soldiers Discuss What does, debase
money mean? Discuss What is inflation of currency? The roots, or beginning of Fuedalism in Europe Before the year 200 AD, Rome had been a great and powerful Empire. But, after a
series of good and bad Emperors, Rome began to decline Diocletian tried to restore order in the ruined economy by governmental laws. He created a national budget that aimed at balancing expenses and revenues. In 301 he responded to rising prices with an edict that fixed prices on thousands of commodities and services
For the sake of law and order and collecting taxes, Diocletian renewed an attempt made earlier in the century to prohibit people from moving off the lands they worked. Everyone was ordered to remain at his present occupation and location. Tenant farmers were to inherit the obligations of their fathers and were becoming serfs, to be sold as property when the landowner sold his land.
Diocletian believed that Rome was experiencing hardships because they stopped worshipping the old gods and were instead becoming Christians.
He began arresting and persecuting Christians.
Diocletian brought peace and a greater degree of order to the empire. Impressed, some people looked to him with hope. But Diocletian's economic policies failed. For two centuries, Germanic peoples had been moving into the empire and settling along its frontiers. Many of them converted to the emperor's faith: Christianity, and they had been adopting Rome's ability to control its borders was a problem addressed in a book called "On Matters of Warfare", written anonymously for the imperial government. The author advocated an increase in defense spending by cutting the bonuses that the state paid to soldiers and civil servants and by increasing the taxes on those landowners in areas threatened by invasion. And the book addressed the issue of hearts and minds. It claimed that official corruption and the rich oppressing the poor were causing disorder. It called for increasing patriotism through social reform -- as if an empire rather than a nation could ever be united by patriotism. The book and its advice was ignored. For more than a year Alaric kept Rome surrounded while waiting for his ransom. Then in August, 410, with assistance from within, his troops slipped into the city. For three days they looted and destroyed the houses of the rich. They killed some people, but being Christians they spared the Christian churches. Then Alaric and the Visigoths left for southern Italy, hoping to cross the Mediterranean Sea to North Africa.
News of the fall of the city of Rome left many across the empire believing that the end of civilization was at hand. A more likely reason for Attila's withdrawal was that plague had broken out among his men, that his supply of food was running out, and that military help for Valentinian was arriving from the eastern half of the empire. Attila returned to what is today Hungary, and the following year he died there, reportedly as the result of a burst artery. And without Attila's leadership, the collection of peoples that had made up his empire became disunited. The Huns were a ferocious barbarian tribe from the east (present day Russia) who terrorized everybody, event the Germans. The Germans continued to push further into the Roman Empire as they were tying to escape the Huns. The Huns were led by a blood thirsty leader by the name of Attila. Some Germans tribes join Attila as he planned to attack Rome, while other Germans joined forces with Rome to try to stop Attila and the Huns. The Roman Emperor, Valentinian fled from his palace in Ravenna to Rome, and he sent the Bishop of Rome -- Pope Leo I -- and two Roman senators to meet with Attila. Christian legend has it that the Pope's presence awed Attila and that the ghosts of Peter and Paul appeared to Attila and terrified him. A D A B C D Protocol Expert; guided reading, make sure everyone is reading and writing their notes and guided reading assignments As you read, each group member should keep these questions in mind, do not make your list until your reading as a group is over. List the Cultural (religion, morals) reasons for Rome's decline List the Governmental reasons for Rome's Decline List the economic reasons for Rome's decline List the external (pressure coming from the outside) reasons for Rome's Decline B Two Expert Grades A B C D List the Cultural (religion, morals) reasons for Rome's decline List the Governmental reasons for Rome's Decline List the economic reasons for Rome's decline List the external (pressure coming from the outside) reasons for Rome's Decline Each member: write down you list on your note book, raise your hand so that I may check it. As a group, discuss the primary (most importand reason (or factor) your group feels contributed to Rome's decline As a group, construct a thesis statement about the primary reason for Rome's Fall Guiding example; Although there were many reasons for Rome's decline, the most important reason was _______ because ____. Be sure you group can expalian why they decided on a final reason THE FALL OF ROME Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook Write a few notes about this section in your notebook