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Ryan Fernandes

on 24 August 2013

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Transcript of Motherboard

The processor is the component present on the motherboard, which carries out the instructions and functions of a computer by performing arithmetic, logical and input/output operations.
A collection of integrated circuits that form the set needed to make an electronic device such as a computer motherboard or portable telephone.
Intel processor
AMD processor
It connects external devices to the motherboard
The power supplied to the Computer is in AC (Alternating Current). All the components in Computer require DC power source. The SMPS or PSU converts AC source to DC source and then supplies to all other components of computer such as RAM, PCI Buses ,Processor etc. SMPS is present in Cabinet of a Computer whereas for Laptops it is externally connected in the form of Adapter.
In a personal computer (PC) these chips are found on the motherboard that handles memory management as well as the interfaces to the peripherals such as the processor and all the different types of bus p rts etc.
The two main chips are
1. North Bridge
2. South Bridge
RAM is the acronym for Random Access Memory and is a form of computer data storage. RAM is considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that intersect at that cell. RAM follows a volatile type of data storage i.e. the information is lost when the power is removed. Actually, when the computer starts the default programs are loaded onto the RAM by the hard disk and when the power is removed the RAM stores the contents back to the hard disk. The data which is currently being used by the user is present in the RAM.
The motherboard serves to connect all of the parts of a computer together. The CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card and other ports and expansion cards all connect to the motherboard directly or via cables.
North Bridge:
It is the main bridge on the motherboard. It is directly connected to the processor of the motherboard. The North bridge connects directly to the processor via the front side bus (FSB). It is also the fasts bridge of the two. It is also called as MHC (Memory Hub Controller).
The main functions of the North bridge are:

Memory Controller
PCI Express Controller
South Bridge connector
Graphics Controller
South Bridge:
It is the second bridge of the motherboard. It is connected to the Northbridge through a bus. The south bridge chip is also called ICH (I/O Controller Hub) or PCH (Platform Controller Hub). Its main functions are controlling the input/output devices and the on-board devices.
The South Bridge connects with:
Storage Ports
USB Ports
On-Board Audio
On-Board LAN
PCI BUS/Express Lanes
CMOS Memory
Legacy Devices
South Bridge
North Bridge
IDE and SATA are different types of interfaces to connect storage devices to a computer's system bus.
IDE( Integrated Drive Electronics)
A Bus is a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of the computer to another
SATA(Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
widely used hard drive interface
allowable length of only 18inches
supports hard drives with over 250 GB of data
least expensive
A single IDE interface can only support two devices at one time
IDE uses a special configuration called master and slave
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SATA offers several advantages over the older IDE interface
reduced cable size
(3.3 ft, 8mm wide)
faster data transfer through higher signaling rates
I/O queuing protocol
Which one's better?????
IDE or SATA ???
Comparing between the two......

Cable length
Data transfer rates
Number of drives supported
Obstruction to airflow
Microprocessor Sockets:
The microprocessors are fixed or inserted on the motherboard. Sockets present on the motherboard help do this work. The form and design of the sockets have changed over the course of history.
7 conductors instead of 40
Slot Socket
PGA socket
LGA socket
A Bus is a collection of wires through which data is
transmitted from one part of the computer to another.
An Expansion Bus slot is a slot located inside a computer on the motherboard that allows additional boards to be connected to it.
AGP slots
PCI-Express slots
Types Of Expansion Bus Slots
PCI slot
PCI-Express slot
AGP slot
A Bus, in simple terms, is a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of the computer to another.
An expansion slot is a slot located inside a computer on the motherboard
that allows additional boards to be connected to it.
Types of Expansion Bus Slots
PCI slots
PCI- Express slots
Usual PCI slots
PCI stands for
A PCI bus allows the processor to communicate with
peripheral devices within the computer.
PCI slots can handle 64 bits of data at a time
Used for basic components such as sound cards and video cards
PCI-E slots are an improvised version of PCI slots
They can link together to provide a more
direct and faster connection.
General-purpose slot that can host
new PCI-E single-channel devices
Used for devices that plug
into desktop and server
PCI-Express slot sizes
AGP slot
AGP stands for
It is basically used for connecting graphic cards to the motherboard
BIOS software is stored in a non-volatile ROM chip on the motherboard. It is specifically designed to work with each model of computer. Unlike previously, in modern computer systems, BIOS chip contents can be rewritten without removing it from the motherboard, that is, it allows the BIOS software to be upgraded in place.
CMOS (Complimentary Metal oxide Semiconductor) is a non volatile RAM chip located on the motherboard, supported by a lithium or Ni-Cad battery when the power is off. This small CMOS memory is used to store the BIOS settings. The remaining use of the battery is to keep the RTC (real time clock) running. This Quartz clock is in function even when the PC is not in use.
BIOS screen
CMOS battery
A graphics card is a small printed
circuit board that controls the
output to a display screen and
is designed to plug into AGP
in order to communicate with the processor.
Full transcript