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Deaf Identity, and Social Development

This presentation reviews research in the fields of social development, social neuroscience, social-emotional literacy, and their application in supporting the social-emotional development of hearing impaired students.

Scott Gould

on 7 November 2014

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Transcript of Deaf Identity, and Social Development

Deaf Identity and Social Development
Matthew Lieberman
Professor in Social Cognitive Neuroscience at UCLA
Award winner of the American Psychological Association
Lecturer in the field of Neural Leadership

Interviewed by Heidi Grant Halvorson
Associate Director of the Motivation Science Center at the Columbia Business School,


Matthew Lieberman

Professor in Social Cognitive Neuroscience at UCLA
Award winner of the American Psychological Association
Lecturer in the field of Neural Leadership.
Author of "Social: Why our brains are wired to connect".
Twitter: @social_brains

Interviewed by
Heidi Grant Halvorson
Associate Director of the Motivation Science Center at the Columbia Business School,
Author of "SUCCEED: How We Can Reach Our Goals"
Twitter: @hghalvorson
What makes humans so different to other mammals…?
What makes us the dominant species on the planet…?
What makes us unique to other mammals…?
We have a Big Brain so that:
1. We can reason
2. We can think abstractly
3. We can plan (executive functioning)
4. We can express ourselves in language
5. We can imagine the future
FMRI Research at Washington University noticed that when subjects stopped doing a focused task, a default brain network switched on.
The FMRI image of the neural network resembles a "Spaceship".
This is the neural network that sees and thinks about the world socially, ourselves and other people.
Social Needs start here -->
Social Neuroscience is a new interdisciplinary field using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behaviour.
Humans are fundamentally a social species, rather than individuals.
Humans organise themselves into families, groups, towns and cities, civilizations, and cultures.
Groups evolved hand in hand with our neural and hormonal mechanisms.
Social behaviours helped humans survive, reproduce, and care for offspring.
Social neuroscience focuses on how the brain mediates social interactions.
Research in Social Neuroscience has discovered that a larger pre-frontal cortex in primates is linked to a larger size of the group that the primate lives within, more than the ability of the individual animal to innovate, to reason, or to think abstractly.
Therefore, the driver for the evolution of the human "Big Brain" is our need to work well with others, and our ability to organise into larger groups, and achieve things that we could never do on our own.
You can be the smartest person in the room, but if you can’t get anyone motivated or interested to work with you, you will never build anything.
Building and maintaining social relationships appears to have driven our evolution as a species.
The pain of losing a relationship, or a loved one, rejection, or a broken heart is a lot like physical pain.
Cognitive neuroscience research has found that activity in the brain is remarkably similar.
Humans are built so that when we feel separation from loved ones or social disconnection, we experience social-emotional distress that can be described as "painful".
Hearing impaired students may experience "chronic social pain" due to their social isolation.
Research has shown that when a person experiences social exclusion or rejection, the neural pattern response that is linked to physical pain lights up in a similar way to the experience of this social pain.
This suggests that social exclusion and rejection is linked to the same survival instinct as physical pain.
Feeling real "Pain" suggests that our social needs are linked to our physical needs, and are part of our survival as a species.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation”.
Maslow studied what he called ‘exemplary people’ such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy.”
Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population.
This model assumes that cognitive ability increases in complexity with physical development.
Understanding social relationships is dependent upon a child’s interactions with their environment.
The communication deficiency of many hearing impaired children may lead to a delay of social development.
The social problems experienced by hearing impaired children may be in direct proportion to the limitations of their linguistic development and social communication.

REF: Schum (1991) Journal of Ear and Hearing
1. Self vs World
– sensori-motor exploration, learning what the child can and cannot control, cry to be fed (newborn)
2. Person vs Objects
– social smiling, response to mirror image (often established by 4 months of age)
3. Good vs Bad
– People who meet the child’s needs and those that do not. Stranger anxiety. Requires good communication systems, temper tantrums (from 18 months to 3 years)
4. Rules (Why)
– Learning that "rules" govern social relationships, cause and effect, requires good communication to learn rules (from 3 to 6 years of age).
5. Who
– Empathy, helping without expectation of reward, appreciating others' viewpoints, recognised by communication of thoughts and feelings (from 6-12 years)
6. Principles
– Worries about other people, critical of others not operating in a principled manner. The Formal Operations Period in Piaget’s Model. It is critical for hearing impaired students to have a complex and highly developed linguistic system to reach this stage.
7. Patterns
– Adapting to different roles in different interpersonal relationships (brother, father, coach, etc.) while maintaining core identity.

REF: Developmental Stages of Interpersonal Interaction (Sullivan, Grant and Grant 1957)
Hearing impaired students may display behaviours that are impulsive; rigid; immature; egocentric; with an absence of inner controls and empathy; and demonstrate limited self-awareness (Schum, 1991).
The majority of hearing impaired children are at risk of more psycho-social problems than hearing children (Vernon and Andrews, 1990).
The psycho-social problems of hearing impaired children may be more related to their learning experiences than their physical issues.
Mental health: a state of well-being

Mental health is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.
REF: www.who.int

social and emotional well-being
refers to the way a person thinks and feels about themselves and others. Many of the characteristics or attributes of social and emotional well-being follow a developmental pathway, and age-appropriateness is therefore a key factor in measurement (Denham et al. 2009; Humphrey et al. 2010).
REF: www.aihw.gov.au
Students are more likely to succeed in school when they feel connected to school. School connection is the belief by students that adults in the school care about their learning as well as about them as individuals.

Critical requirements for feeling connected include students experiencing:
- High academic expectations with support for learning
- Positive adult/student relationships
- Safety: both physical and emotional

REF: Wingspread Declaration on School Connections (2004) Journal of School Health
Personal and Social Capability Framework
1. Self-awareness
2. Self-management
3. Social management
4. Social awareness

REF: www.australiancurriculum.edu.au
1. Explicit quality criteria
2. Engagement
3. High expectations
4. Social support
5. Students’ self-regulation
6. Student direction

REF: www.det.nsw.edu.au
Quality Learning Environment
Outlines four ‘components’ that schools can use to focus their efforts in supporting children’s mental health and well-being.

1. Creating a sense of community
- A sense of community promotes feelings of belonging and connectedness in all children, families and staff, and has shown to have a positive effect on children’s mental health.
2. Social and emotional learning for children
– The development of social and emotional skills is important for good mental health, and also benefits academic learning, the formation of values, and a willingness to achieve and cooperate. This component emphasises the
“Five core competencies"
and the importance of explicitly teaching and modelling these skills.  
3. Working with parents and carers
– Working with parents and carers to strengthen the mental health of children in a holistic way.
4. Helping children experiencing mental difficulties
 - Mental health problems can limit a child’s capacity to learn and develop relationships.

REF: www.kidsmatter.edu.au
Five Social and Emotional Learning Areas
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL)

1. Self-Awareness
– understanding our feelings
2. Self-Management
– handling thoughts and emotions in appropriate ways (motivation, stress, goals)
3. Social Awareness
– respecting the feelings of others, ethical norms of behaviour
4. Relationship Skills
– dealing positively with relationship problems to maintain healthy relationships
5. Responsible Decision-Making
– making constructive choices and considering the consequences, ethical standards, safety and well-being of self and others

REF: www.casel.org
The internet and the use of text/videos for communicating has provided greater opportunities for hearing impaired students to connect to others locally and around the world on an equal basis.
To participate in society all students need to know how to communicate using digital technology.
This also includes knowing how to remain safe and how best to use the technology available.
Hearing impaired students may be particularly vulnerable online due to their delayed social development and understanding of social norms.
In 2008, The Federal Government developed a Social-Emotional Literacy Program linked to the development of social-emotional competencies using common children’s books available in many school libraries.
The program has lesson plans and questions to ask to assess and encourage social-emotional literacy development.

REF: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations: All REDI Project (2008)
Hearing Teachers often work one on one with hearing impaired students, and are uniquely placed to support their social and emotional development.
Withdrawal sessions often use reading books as stimulus materials for language and literacy activities.
By using some of the reading books suggested in the SEL Program, hearing impaired students can engage in reflective discussions about moral and ethical dilemmas.
Hearing Teachers can also employ a range of
questioning techniques
to assess the student's beliefs and "magical thinking" about the future, their impressions of their learning style, and their social capability.
Good communication skills develop the child's sense of identity.
What questions can you ask to ensure that you get the information you need...?
1. Open vs Closed questions
2. Scaling questions
– 1 through 10
3. Projective questions
– Symbolic questions to access personal belief structures
4. The Miracle Question
– “If you woke up tomorrow and your life was perfect, what would be different...?”
Q: If you could be an animal, which one would you be…? (Assesses vulnerability, power, neediness, aggression, etc.)
Q: If you could be any age, what age would you be…? (Assesses nurturing needs, independence, oppositionality, need to grow up fast, anti-authority attitude, family relationships)
Q: If you had 3 wishes, what would your wishes be…?
Q: What would you like to be doing in 10 years…? (Assesses hopefulness, hopelessness, motivation, family issues).
Q: If you could be Principal of the school, what would you change…? (Assesses perception of fairness/unfairness, attitudes to authority, students’ own needs).

REF: June Simpson (2004) Rivendell
Q: What sort of hassles are you having at school or at home…?
Q: What are your biggest worries…? (Mum, Dad, Family, school)
Q: What would you do if you were sitting in the class and the teacher asked you to sit in another place…? (Fair/unfair, chain of events).
Q: What could you have changed…? (After student describes an incident ending in consequences for them)
Q: What do you think you need to change…? (Motivation)
Q: Can you tell me something you’re good at…? (End on a positive, self-esteem)

REF: June Simpson (2004) Rivendell
Restorative Questions: When things go Wrong
What happened?
What were you thinking of at the time?
What have you thought about since?
Who has been affected by what you have done? In what way?
What do you think you need to do to make things right?

Restorative questions: When someone has been Hurt
What did you think when you realised what had happened?
What impact has this incident had on you and others?
What has been the hardest thing for you?
What do you think needs to happen to make things right?

REF: www.realjustice.org and www.iirp.org
express self verbally
use non-verbals
use communication positively
connect positively with individuals
connect positively with groups
resolve conflict positively
address others’ needs in conflict
say "no"
stick to a decision to say "no"
know when to make decisions
assess factors
know to act in a legal and safe way
treat others kindly
contribute to common good
generate solutions to problems
implement solutions
evaluate solutions
identify others’ thoughts
interpret others’ thoughts
identify others’ feelings
interpret others’ feelings
value differences
know differences are complementary
monitoring feelings
regulating feelings
setting short-term goals
setting long-term goals
working towards goals
setting appropriate goals
identifying emotions
labelling emotions
knowing your strengths
cultivating your strengths

3. Social Awareness
5. Decision Making
4. Relationships
2. Self-Management
1. Self Awareness
The Five Core
These are the "4 Magic Phrases" you can use to respond to anything, and deflect tricky questions:

First you say “That’s interesting” then:
1. Tell me more about that.
2. Why would you say that...?
3. Why would you do that...?
4. Why would you ask that...?

REF: www.onlinecommunicationtraining.com
Full transcript