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Journey of Hamburger
Transcript of Journey of Hamburger
So as soon as a person takes a bite out of me, the digestion process begins. Mechanical Digestion starts in the mouth. When you eat, the saliva breaks down the chemicals and lubricates the food, which helps make it mushy and easy to swallow. Your tongue helps out, pushing the food around while you chew with your teeth. Hello. Nice to meet you. I’m Bob the Hamburger. I contain lettuce, tomato, beef, onions, mayonnaise and a bun to hold everything together. Chemical digestion begins its long and hazardous journey! Amylase gets to work here and starts breaking down the carbohydrates found in the bun into sugar. When you're ready to swallow, the tongue pushes a tiny bit of mushed-up food called a bolus toward the back of your throat and into the opening of your oesophagus, the second part of the digestive tract.
Thank goodness for the epiglottis! When you swallow a small ball of mushed-up food or liquids, a special flap of tissue called the epiglottis closes off entry to your lungs so that you do not inhale food. Once food has entered the oesophagus, it doesn't just drop right into your stomach. Instead, muscles in the walls of the oesophagus move in a wavy way to slowly squeeze the food through the esophagus.
This process is called peristalsis, which helps to move from the back of your throat through your oesophagus then to your stomach, by using the muscles to help contract behind the food and then relax in front of the food, making it move. This takes about 2 or 3 seconds. At last, the food reaches your stomach via an attachment to the end of the oesophagus. The stomach is necessary in the digestive process. The role of the stomach is to:
1. Store eaten food
2. Break down food again into a liquid mixture, combining everything
3. Release acid to kill the bacteria in food
4. Start breaking down protein and digesting fats So while the acid is killing the bad bacteria from the food, proteases start to break down the proteins such as the beef. The pancreases stops acid from damaging cells. Mucus mixes everything into a soup called chyme, however still the food is only semi-digested. Food stays in the stomach for about 1-4 hours.
Breaking down lipids, such as fats and oils, is hard work! Because lipids are insoluble in water, they tend to clump together into large blobs. This is where bile, produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, helps solve this problem. As they are attracted to both water and lipids, they help to emulsify (separate) the lipids so the lipase enzymes can gain access to them and do their job. Now the chyme mixture passes through the small intestine, where fat can be digested and the bile also does its job here as well. The small intestine breaks down the food mixture even more so your body can absorb all the vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The beef in the hamburger is full of proteins — and a little fat — and the small intestine can help extract them with a little help from three friends: the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Food may spend as long as 4 hours in the small intestine and will become a very thin, watery mixture. It's time well spent because, at the end of the journey, the nutrients from your hamburger can pass from the intestine into the blood. Once in the blood, your body is closer to benefiting from the complex carbohydrates in the bun, the protein in the beef, and the lipids from the mayonnaise. The nutrient-rich blood comes directly to the liver for processing. The livers job is to filter out any harmful substances or wastes, turning some of the waste into more bile. It also controls how many nutrients will be passed into the blood stream and if any will go into storage. The large intestine is the last stop in the digestive system. It is where the body gets its last chance to absorb the water and some minerals into the blood. Then all the waste comes out. As you can see, the digestive system is complicated yet one of nature’s wonderful creations. It is an amazing and wonderful system that is necessary for the function of life.