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Children Raised By Grandparents

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Katie Smith

on 9 April 2013

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Transcript of Children Raised By Grandparents

Presented By: Katie Smith Children Raised By Grandparents Population Overview The Current Population Survey conducted in 2010 estimated that 1.6 million children are being raised by their grandparents in parent-absent households (U.S. Census, 2010).

In Arkansas 64,653 children years
18 and under are living with
their grandparent. Reasons In Grandparent
Care Abandonment
Child Maltreatment
Parental Incarceration
Parental Mental Illness
Parent Substance Abuse Children in parent-absent
homes have school-related
problems as well (Edwards, 2003).

In addition children cared for
by grandparents also have
difficulties with attachment and
social support because of
parental loss, child abuse,
or neglect
(Dent & Cameron, 2003). In Benton County there
are 4,379 children
living with their
(U.S. Census, 2010). Early Negative Life Experience
Loss of Parents
Adjustment to Living with Grandparents
Susceptibility to social-emotional distress These Children Must Cope With... Current Research Shows... The few studies available show
that children raised by grandparents
have increased behavioral problems
(Campbell, Hu, & Oberle, 2006).

Although their living condition may be
improving, these children also have
significantly higher levels of emotional
problems compared to the general
population (Smith & Palmieri, 2007). Attachment Theory "Attachment is a deep and
enduring emotional bond that
connects one person to another
across time and space."
-Mary Ainsworth

Attachment is adaptive to children
and increases their chances
of survival.

Children have difficulties
forming attachments when
removed from their parents care. Children who are not in their parent's care form insecure attachments and there is a lack of goodness-in-fit between the grandparents and the child (Poehlmann, 2003). Related Policies Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-351)

Promotes permanent families by relative guardianship and adoption.
Improved education and health care for foster children.
Extends federal support up to the age of 21 for those aging out" of the system. AR House Bill 2013
(Passed on 4/13/2009)

Codifies the federal Fostering Connections Act relative requirements into state law. The state agency must make diligent efforts to locate and notify adult relatives within 30 days of children being removed from their parents home. Multi-Systems Life Course Perspective Look at their life history and not just their present state.

Look outside the current difficulties at the circumstances such as abuse, neglect and other trauma that led to their current living situation.

It's important to remember that not all children in their grandparents care are not functioning well. Literature Review Five completely different studies were looked at to develop a basic knowledge base. Study #1 Teachers perspectives of emotional and behavioral functioning of children raised by grandparents compared to children raised by biological parents.

Found that children raised by grandparents have significant levels of emotional and behavioral problems.
These children were also referred to counselors more than their peers for behavioral problems. Study #2 Comparing to the normative child population children raised by grandparents had a higher number of overall problems.

They also were at a greater overall risk and boys displayed more difficulties than girls. Study #3 This study looked at factors in the environment that effect children raised by grandparents.

Children raised by grandparents had a clinically increased level of psychological stress and fewer family resources than the normative population.

They also lacked social support and a supportive home environment. Study #4 Specifically looking at Psycho therapeutic Outcomes researchers found that children raised by grandparents had high levels of medical problems, and stress related to changed in caretakers. Study #5 Qualitative interviews of 41 adolescents raised being raised by grandparents screening for disclosure of positive or negative relationship qualities with their grandparents.

Most children accepted the permanency of living with their grandparents.
Few of the children had absolutely no contact with their biological parents.
Those that did have these relationships said they had no interference with their bond with their grandparent. My Contribution Previous research looks at this growing vulnerable population. None look to support it.
That's where I come in!

15% of the Garfield Elementary student population are children being raised by grandparents.
I'm going to help support them.
How??? My Capstone Taking a sample of students at Garfield Elementary I will lead a social and emotional support group. I will have teachers complete a pre-treatment evaluation and a post-treatment evaluation.

I will subsequently lead a support group designed for the grandparents.

I will evaluate the efficacy of social and emotional support groups for children raised by grandparents. References (Smith, Palmier, Hancock & Richardson, 2008). (Grant & Kucera, 1998) (Edwards, 2006) (Smith & Palmieri, 2007) (Kelley, Whitley, & Campos, 2011) (Leder, Grinstead, Jensen, & Bond, 2003). (Doblin-MacNab & Keiley, 2009) U.S. Census Bureau (2010). Table C4 children with grandparents by presence of parents, sex, race, and Hispanic origins for selected characteristics, 2010. Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Retrieved on 9/20/2012 from http://www.census.gov

U.S. Census Bureau (2010). Table B10001 Grandchildren under 18 years living with a grandparent householder by age of grandchild. Current Population Survey, 2010. Retrieved on 10/01/2012 from http://www.census.gov

Smith, G.C., Palmer, P.A., Hancock, G.R., & Richardson, R.A. (2008). Custodial grandmother’s psychological distress, dysfunctional parenting, and grandchild adjustment. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 76, 327-357. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu.

Grant, R. & Kucera, E. (1998). Social and environmental stressors affecting an inner city school population. National Academy on School-Based Health Care. Campbell, L.R., Hu, J., & Oberle, S. (2006). Factors associated with future offending: Comparing youth in grandparent-headed homes with those in parent-headed homes. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 20, 258-267. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu.

Smith, G.C., & Palmieri, P.A. (2007). Risk of psychological difficulties among children raised by custodial grandparents. Psychiatric Services, 58, 1303-1310. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu

Dent, R.J., & Cameron, R.J.S. (2003). Developing resiliency in children who are in public care: The educational psychology perspective. Educational Psychology in Practice, 19, 3-17. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu

Edwards, O.W. (2003). Living with grandma: A grand familial study. School Psychology International, 24, 204-217. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu.
Poehlmann, J. (2003). An attachment perspective on grandparents raising their very young grandchildren: Implication for intervention and research. Infant Mental Health Journal, 24 (12), 1-11. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu

Edwards, O.W. (2006). Teachers’ perceptions of the emotional and behavioral functioning of children raised by grandparents. Psychology in the Schools, 43 (5), 565-572. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu

Kelley, S.J., Whitley, D.M., & Campos, P.E. (2011). Behavior problems in children raised by grandmothers: The role of caregiver distress, family resources, and the home environment. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 2138-2145. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu

Leder, S., Grinstead, L.N., Jensen, S., & Bond, L. (2003). Psychotherapeutic treatment outcomes in grandparent-raised children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 16 (1), 5-14. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu

Doblin-MacNab, M.L., & Keiley, M.K. (2009). Navigating interdependence: How adolescents raised solely by their grandparents experience their family relationships. Family Relations, 58, 162-175. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu
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