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Unit 1: Nature of Science

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Callie Pogge

on 17 August 2015

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Transcript of Unit 1: Nature of Science

Unit 1: Nature of Science
Essential Questions
How do scientists investigate a problem and report their results?
What should every person know about biology?
What is life?

What is Science?
Think, pair, and share your ideas on how science is defined.
Definition of Science
Science is the effort to understand the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding.

How is science studied?
It is done through observation of natural phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate natural processes under controlled conditions.

Aspects of the Nature of Science
Tentativeness
(Can change)
Creativity
Includes Observations and Inferences
Observations:
Gather information using only your 5 senses
Qualitative Observation:
Describes what you observe
Ex: Minions are yellow.
Quantitative Observation:
Measures what you observe
Includes numbers
Ex: There are 9 minions.

Subjectivity (based on evidence)
Leads to Theories and Laws
Scientific Theory
Inferred explanations of observable phenomenon
Scientific Law
Descriptions of relationships of observable phenomena

Socially and culturally embedded
Empirically-based (based on and/or derived from observations of the natural world)
What is Biology?
Bio = Life
Logy = Field of Study

Biology: the scientific study of life

Purpose of Biology
The purpose of biological study is to examine the
structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living things

Biology extends from global to chemical reactions inside cells
Levels of organization:
The study of living organisms and their internal and external interactions at multiple levels


Put the levels in order from BIGGEST to smallest!
Population
biosphere
tissue
community
atom
ecosystem
organ system
cell
molecule
organism


Levels of Organization
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism
Organ system
Tissue
Cell
Molecule
Atom

Living organisms and environments form interconnected webs
Cells are the basic units of life
Two Main Types of Cells
Prokaryotic: don't have nucleus, bacteria

Eukaryotic: have a nucleus, fungus, protists, plants, and animals
Approaches of Scientists


What do you use to study or investigate a problem?
Observations
Using senses to gather info

Senses = sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell

Information gathered is data
(evidence used to support your conclusions

Qualitative Observations
Cannot be counted or
does not use numbers

Examples: Color...?
Quantitative Observations
Involves numbers
Inference:
Logical interpretation (figure it out)

Observation or Inference?
The chalkboard is black. ____
My pencil is 7 cm long. ____
The principal has 2 lungs. ____
If a dog growls, he must be angry. ____
My dog growls when the phone rings. ____

Scientists use two main approaches when studying science
Discovery Science
Scientists observe objects and phenomena in the natural world
attempt to explain their findings

Example: mapping the human genome

Hypothesis-Based Science:

scientists propose hypotheses (possible explanations)
use the scientific method to test their ideas

Example: What is the effect of Miracle Gro on plant growth?

Steps in the Scientific Method
1. State the Problem
This may involve gathering information or research using discovery methods

2. Form a hypothesis
Possible explanation (‘educated guess’)
Must be testable and falsifiable

Steps in the Scientific Method
3. Experiment
Test only 1 variable at a time
Control all other factors
Experimental group is compared to control group.

What is the difference between the exp. group and the control group? ONE FACTOR ONLY!

Variables
Independent (manipulated) variable:
what is selected to determine the effect it has on the dependent variable
Ex: Amount of Miracle Gro

Dependent (responding) variable:
what is changing and being measured
Ex: Height of plant

Controlled variable:
the variables that are kept constant
DRY MIX
Powerpoint practice
Steps in the Scientific Method
4. Record / Analyze Results
5. Draw Conclusions

While analyzing results and drawing conclusions your hypothesis may be modified or rejected; and the
process may begin again.

Scientific Theory

a well-substantiated explanation of the natural world, supported by multiple tests

Ex: Big Bang Theory

The Metrics System
A universal system of measurement used by scientists around the world
Decimal system, based on tens
AKA the SI system

Base Units
Length:
Volume:
Mass:
Temperature
Base Units
Length: meter (m)
Volume: liter (L)
Mass: gram (g)
Temperature: Celsius (C)
Conversion
10 cm into millimeters =
15 mg into grams=
1m into kilometers=
1mL into liters=

Characteristics of Life
1. Order: complex organization (cells)
Characteristics of Life
2. Regulation – maintain a consistent internal environment called
homeostasis

Characteristics of Life
3. Growth and development – how an organism gets larger(growth) and changes form (development) is determined by inherited genes (DNA is genetic material)

Characteristic of Life
4. Energy utilization – metabolism
(chemical reactions)

Characteristics of Life
5. Response to environment – an
organism’s reaction to external stimuli

Characteristics of Life
6. Reproduction – organisms reproduce
their own kind - heredity

Characteristics of Life
7. Evolution – The capacity of a species to
change over time

Inferences
Smells like smoke. Looks like smoke....
No fire here! It's just a BBQ!
An explanation for an observation you have made
Are based on your past experiences and prior knowledge
Can change when new observations are made
It is a logical interpretation

8. Includes genetic information (DNA)
Characteristics of Life
Write 2 observations and one inference for the above picture.
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