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Transcript of Environmentality
=>"It is the encirclement, circumscription, or beleaguerment of places and persons in a strategic disciplinary policing of space" (p. 64) how discourses
of nature, ecology,
or the environment,
as disciplinary articulations of
might be reinterpreted
as efforts to generate systems of
over, but also within and through,
Nature for the governance of
modern economies and societies Vérité Souveraineté (Pouvoir de) Néo-libérale Disciplinaire (Pouvoir des disciplines) Environnementalité Fletcher, 2010. Neoliberal environmentality: Towards a poststructuralist political ecology of the conservation debate. Concept Gouvernementalité Environnement + <= Agrawal
2005 Cadre d'analyse ≠? => Egalement de gouverner
par/avec la nature Geo-power Bio-pouvoir
Bio-politique type de
gouvernementalité => Le pouvoir gouverne les individus et l'ensemble des vivants constitués en population sujet Luke, 1995. On environmentality: Geo-power and eco-knowledge in the discourses of contemporary environmentalism. Foucault Luke
2010 Environnementalité(s) GCRN Etcis Incentives - Conduite des conduites
- Gouverner => adopte(nt) les comportements appropriés Discours Discipline Savoir/pouvoir Archéologie/généalogie
du savoir Gouvernementalité
Bio-pouvoir/politique Michel Foucault "Nature arguably is meaningless until humans assign meanings to it [...]. Nature's meanings always will be multiple and unfixed"
"Before technologies turn its [Nature] matter and energy into products, Nature already is transformed discursively into 'natural resources'" => "rendered intelligible through these discursive processes, it can be used to legitimize almost anything"
Environment : "it encompasses Nature, conservation, and ecology as well as pollution, deforestation, and contamination"
"It is anything out there, everything around us, something affecting us, nothing within us, but also a thing upon which we act" (p. 64)
"Environmental analysis must reduce 'everything' to measures of 'anything' available for measurement" (p.63)
=> "Turn today to 'the environment'" (p.59), "environmentalism becomes the practice of running this house created by living things for living things more rationally or justly" (p.62)
Reconsider : "Contemporary environmentalists are giving a new look to "the environment," as a concept, by transforming its identity in the practices of "environmentality" (p.58) "Foucault can be read as dividing the environment into two separate, but interpenetrating spheres of action: the biological and the historical"
"The historical" starts to envelop, circumscribe, and surround "the biological." (p. 66)
=>"Environmentalized places become sites of supervision (p. 65)
"Encircled by enclosures of alarm, environments can be disassembled, recombined, and subjected to the disciplinary designs of expert management" (p.65)
"An environmental act, in turn, is already a disciplining move, aimed at constructing some expanse of space in a discursive envelope"
"As new mediations of development and growth were constructed after 1945, the geo-power/eco-knowledge nexus of environmentalization came to comfortably supplement the high technology, capital intensive development strategies that have since been implemented" "Worldwatch Institute might be dismissed as just another nest of D.C. policy wonks, turning out position papers [..] Such activities can be the essence of power/knowledge formation, because much of what policy wonks do basically boils down to defining, creating, and enforcing discursive regimes of disciplinary truth" (p. 59) "autolomitation de la raison gouvernementale" (Terrel, 2010: p.124);
"jouant des liberté pour mieux assujettir"; "maximum d'effet avec un minimum de moyens" (ibid: p.125)
"within a neoliberal framework conservationists would simply endeavour to provide incentives sufficient to motivate individuals to choose to behave in conservation-friendly ways" (Fletcher, 2010: 176)
In this perspective as well, ‘environmental problems cease to be discussed in moral terms and are now addressed as issues that require cost-benefit-analyses" (ibid: 176)
=>Conservation néo-libérale "Liberation" ? Discipline: "Produit un discours sur la norme " (Revel, 2002: 21); & Controle : "Une économie du pouvoir qui gère la société en fonction de modèles normatifs [...]. Un système d'individualisation qui s'attache à modeler chaque individu et à en gérer l'existence" (Revel, 2002: 16)
"L'intériorisation de la norme et de la structure réticulaire des techniques d'assujettissement, à la gestion des « populations» et aux techniques de soi" (Revel, 2002: 22)
"making/production of environmental subjects: individuals who see the generalized need for environmental protection in some form and whose practices and words bear the mark of this acceptance, if not of personal conversion" (Agrawal, 2005: 18) ou "come to think and act in new ways in relation to the environmental domain being governed’ (ibid.: 7) "aimed at the rational governance of a territory through compelling subjects’ obedience to sovereign will by direct threat of punishment" (Flecher, 2010: 176)
=>"Fortress conservation"; "Back to the barrier"; "Private conservation" "This ‘truth environmentality’ might be observed, for instance, in the perspective advocated by deep ecologists, who often argue for a particular approach to resource preservation based on claims concerning humans’ essential interconnection with nature, an interconnection commonly understood as evolutionarily derived (Roszak et al. 1995; Fletcher 2009b). Alternative resource use regimes, such as those practiced bymany indigenous peoples drawing on so-called traditionalecological knowledge (TEK), might be seen as variants oftruth environmentality as well" (Fletcher, 2010: 177) "political ecology critique seems to concern conservation’s contribution to various forms of inequality" [...]; to champion democratic, egalitarian, and non-hierarchical forms of natural resource management in which local peoples enjoy a genuinely participatory (if not self-mobilising) role" (Flecher, 2010: 178)
"seem to resonate with the Foucault-inspired critique of development, demanding an end to the dominant ‘development discourse’ in which a cadre of (white, western) ‘experts’ plan interventions on behalf of the world’s poor and calling for a ‘post-development’"
"‘liberation ecology’,which seeks self-consciously to ‘mark the potentially liberatory or emancipatory potential of current political activity around environment and resources"
" political ecologists as proposing a ‘post-conservation’ perspective more concerned with social and environmental justice than biodiversity preservation?"
In engaging with the conservation debate, therefore, it might be useful for political ecologists to more explicitly frame their interventions in terms of the specific environmentality or environmentalities they wish to endorse and to clearly contrast this vision with the very different arts of environmental government expressed in the conservation models they oppose.
=> CPR based conservation systems Décentralisation des régulations
environnementales "I suggest that these seemingly different change in knowledges, politics, institutional arrangements, and human subjectivities [comme constituent d'une technologie de gouvernement donnée] concerning the environment are of a piece and are best understood when considered together" (Agrawal, 2005: xii) Sur le terrain: "different governmentalities may conflict as well, leading to debate concerning the proper approach to governance within a given situation" (Fletcher, 2010, 176) ≠? +? Foucault in the tropics??? "disciplinary governmentality would be necessary to construct the rational actors upon which neoliberal governmentality would then operate by inculcating subjects’ self-perceptions as self-interested" (Fletcher, 2010: 176) + Neoliberal and truth environmentalities may come together in the charismatic authority exercised by ‘conservation celebrities’ who champion environmental causes on behalf of BINGOs and their corporate partners (Fletcher, 2010: 177) truth and sovereign environmentalities might be combined in certain strands of a fortress conservation approach. For instance, early advocates of fortress protected areas such as Muir and Thoreau self-consciously framed their advocacy in terms of an essential human need for connection with the sacred in nature “Decentralization of environmental regulation involved change in three sets of relationship. […]
The first of these relationships concerns the way in which states interact with localities. Decentralization of regulation produced what I call governmentalized localities. […]
Second, new regulatory bodies emerged to shape social environmental interactions in local communities. I call them regulatory communities […].
Finally, new technologies to govern forest were (and are) linked with the construction of environmental subjects — people who have come to think and act in new ways in relation to the environment.” (Agrawal, 2005: xiii-xiv) "Explaining why, when, how, and in what measure people come to develop an environmentally oriented subject position is the ultimate target of this book's arguments (Agrawal, 2005: 2) Especially since the 1980’s, the nature of environmental politics has shifted as global geopolitical circumstances have changed and nation state have come to recognize the limitations of centralized form of government (p202). Such on-going change in environmental regime have enabled many theoretical innovation and given birth to complex narratives of environmental changes (202)
==>CPR Theory Background théorique "historical examination of different technologies of government" (p.3)
Considers that politics (1), institutions (2) and identities (3) are “constituent part of a given technology of government”. (1) political ecology “political ecology is essentially a politics of the commons” (208)“political ecology to be redefinition of access to commons in the context of changing relationship between capital and state” (209)
(2) CPR theory scholars of common properly seek to address the problem of disappearing commons by looking at rules and institutions whereas many political ecologists focus especially on the politics inherent in the erosion of the commons, and the changing forms of access to environmental resources”(209) (3) Feminism environmentalism : approach of environmental subject
careful investigation of the processes whereby interests change, and of the mechanisms that relate interests to social structural locations on the one hand and to practices on the other. Also important would be attention to the relationship between interests, imagination, and the production of subject positions. To pursue such a making of environmental subjects, it would be necessary to give up the concept of subjects and interests that are always, already given by their social structural locations, and instead examine how they are made.”(2011)