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European Conquest & Colonization

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by

Scott Wike

on 6 February 2017

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Transcript of European Conquest & Colonization

European Conquest & Colonization
Africa & the Slave Trade
Pre-Columbian Civilizations
Aztec
Series of city-states that spoke the Nahautl language and controlled the area around modern Mexico
Maya
Inca
Largest civilization in pre-Columbian America located along the Andean mountains
North American Civilizations
Impact of Slavery
European Conquest
The Slave Trade
Hernando Cortes
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conqueror of the Inca Empire
New African States
Impact of Colonization
Columbian Exchange
- Mass exchange of goods, people, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
Classical civilization on the Yucatan Peninsula know for its advanced math and science
Collapsing by the arrival of the Europeans
Legend & Founding
Lake Texcoco
Tenochtitlan
Aztec city with over 200,000 citizens making it the largest city in the world

Chinampas
Narrow pieces of land built over swamps connected by canals that were used for agriculture
Trade & Wealth
Human Sacrifice
Believed everything in the universe sprang from the sacrifice of "spiritual flesh-hood"
Cuzco
Capital of the Inca Empire
Machu Picchu
Abandoned Inca palace that was rediscovered in 1912

Incan Culture
Language
Medical Advances
Society
No written language
Quipu - Series of knotted strings used to record information
Anasazi
Native American culture in southwestern America known for the pueblos and cliff dwelling structures
Mound Builders
Iroquois League
Confederacy of five major tribes in the Great Lakes region
Only major political organization in North America
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Yucatan peninsula and the Aztec Empire
Quetzalcoatl
Siege of Tenochtitlan
Major event of Spanish colonization in the Americas
Decisive defeat of the Aztec empire fueled by inter-indigenous conflict, smallpox and gold
Battle of Cajamarca
Ambush and capture of the Incan king Atahualpa by the Spanish
Major Spanish success because of superior technology
Reasons for Spanish Victory in the Americas
Superior military technology
Division between the Indian peoples
Introduction of new diseases like influenza, smallpox and measles
Forced conversion to Christianity -> Easier to control
English Colonies
Jamestown (1607)
First major English settlement in the Americas
Social, agricultural and leadership issues led to mass starvation
Tobacco
First major cash crop from the Americas that was described as "Virginia's gold and silver"
Caused a major expansion of slavery in English colonies
Massachusetts Bay
Founded by English Protestants who wanted to separate "pure" Christians from "the damned"
Mayflower Compact
- Basic form of democracy established by the pilgrims on their way to the Americas

Reasons for Slavery
Economics
Ethnocentrism
Few Europeans wanted to go to America & work
Cost of slavery lower than paying workers
Africans viewed as racially inferior
Easy for Native Americans to run away
Africans resistant to disease
Stage 1 - Capture
Stage 2 - Middle Passage
Stage 3 - Auction
Captured 50-100 miles inland
Traded to Europeans in exchange for guns, tools, textiles and rum
Europeans benefited from historical warfare and slave trading between African tribes
Mass transportation of African slaves to the New World
11 to 15 million Africans shipped
1.2 to 2.4 million died en route to the New World

Selling of African slaves in exchange for New World goods
Seasoning
- Time spent on Caribbean plantations to be trained as a slave
Massive depopulation of Africa
Weakened nations made it easier for Europe to colonize later
Destroyed cultural and political foundations
Enduring legacy of racism
Kingdom of Kongo
Ashanti
Zulu Empire
Powerful southern African nation that fought against British and Dutch colonization
Expanded trade led to the growth of capitalism and private business
Mercantilism
- Nations should export more goods than it produces in order to protect national economies
Full transcript