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Teri M the Brain


Teri Mitton

on 8 February 2017

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Transcript of Teri M the Brain

The Brain
Parts of the Brain and their Function
The Brainstem
The Medulla Oblongata
Contains nerve tracts
that enter and exit the
Contains the nuclei that regulate heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, balance and coordination.
The Pons
Relays information between the cerebrum and cerebellum.
Contains the pyramids which transmit action potentials from the brain to the skeletal muscles.
Also contains nuclei that control breathing, swallowing, and balance.
The Midbrain
Contains the colliculi
four mounds of
nervous tissue
The inferior colliculi are major relay centers for the auditory nerve pathways
The superior colliculi are involved in visual reflexes
Also controls coordination of eye movement and pupil diamet
Contains the substantia nigra which contains basal nuclei and is involved in regulation of general body movements.
Also contains nerve tracts that run from the cerebrum to cerebellum and cerebrum to spinal cord.
Reticular Formation
Scattered throughout the brainstem is a group of nuclei called the reticular formation.
It is involved in cyclical motor movements:
breathing, walking, chewing ......
Plays an important role in arousing and maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep/wake cycle.
Responds to olfactory stimulation by initiating responses necessary for survival like hunger and thirst
Influences memory, emotions, visceral responses to emotions, motivation and mood.
The Limbic System
The Cerebellum
The comparator
Compares information about an intended movement with sensory information from the moving structures and sends any discrepencey inforamtion to the cerebrum for adjustment to the movements.
Controls proprioception which is the ability to know where you are in reference to space.
This allows for smooth coordinated movemnts
Alcohol effects the function of the cerebellum
Also involved in coordination of complex movements such as riding a bike or playing the piano.
The Cerebrum
The Cerebral Cortex controls all conscious thought and movement.
Sensory Areas
The primary somatic sensory cortex: touch, pain, pressure, and temperature
The primary auditory cortex: hearing
Association areas: recognition
Visual cortex: sight
Taste area
The Motor Areas
Controls voluntary movements
Primary Motor Cortex: sends action potential to the skeletal muscles.
Premotor Area: the staging area for all movement.
Prefrontal Area: the motivation and foresight to plan and initate movement. Also, regulation of motivation, emotional behavior and mood.
Speech Areas
Wernicke's Area : the sensory speech area where speech is understood and phrases are formulated.
Broca's Area: the motor speech area where words are formulated then the message is sent to the premotor area and on to the motor cortex so that muscle movement allows words to be said.
Short-term Memory
Information is retained for a few seconds and is limited to a small amount.
Long-term memory
Information is stored for a few minutes and even may become a permanent memory.
Involves the formation of memory engrams or physical changes in neuron shape.
Rehersal helps transfer information from short term to long term memory
Aging of the Nervous System
Gradual decline in sensory function.
Decrease in proprioception causes a loss of balance and cordination
Movement and reflexes slow down with loss of motor neurons.
Short term memory loss cause and decline in problem solving, planning and intelligence.
Sleep/wake cycles change.
Take care of your Brain!
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