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Bahrain - Just War Doctrine

Bahrain, the current situation and applying the just war doctrine
by

Adrian Mapes-Riordan

on 8 March 2011

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Transcript of Bahrain - Just War Doctrine

Bahrain King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa

King since February 14 2002

King Hamad has four wives, seven sons and five daughters

Has given out 1,000 Dinars to every family during the Bahrain protests of 2011
The goal of the bahrain protests of 2011 was to gain
greater freedom and equality for the Shia population

The goal has since moved towards calling to end the
monarchy of King Hamad.

The Shia majority claims that they are kept from top positions in the military and in politics and foreign Sunnis are given preference.

Political unrest and demonstrations in the street began to occur on February 14, 2011 after the uprising in Egypt and other Middle- Eastern and Northern African countries.

On February 17, 2011 Bahrain military and police opened fire on the protesters while they were assembled in Manama’s Pearl Square.

Troops have since been withdrawn from their position in Pearl Square and protesters are now allowed to assemble and have maintained numbers of 100,000 protesters. Just War Doctrine Pre-War Just cause - The Bahrain government
does not have just cause because their
imminent safety was not in danger

Comparative justice - The government
restricts the rights of the majority Shia,
so the injustice can only reasonable be
applied to the Shia majority

Legitimate Authority - The government
does have authority in Bahrain, so they
are the bodythat has the power to wage war

Right Intention - The assumed intention for
the use of violence in Bahrain is maintaining
power and authority, which does not fall
into right intention

Probability of Success - The use of violence to
quell protests has worked in the past, so
success should be considered reasonable
attainable

Last Resort - The government is not using
violence as a last resort, and should start
negotiations with the Shia majority on
a sharing of authority

Proportionality - There is no considerable
good that could come from a government
victory compared to the loss of life sustained Post-War

1. Repentance:
a. On February 17th and February 18th, security forces and military forces fired on protestors in Manama’s Pearl Square injuring hundreds and killing six. When mourners tried to have a funeral on the 18th, they were again attacked, which resulted in more than seventy injuries.

b. The government provided respect towards protestors after February 19th, the date after the initial attacks against protestors on February 17th and February 18th. The protestors were no longer attacked by police or military and provided electricity and food while they remained in Manama’s Pearl Square.

c. Soldiers were withdrawn from the square on the 19th and King Hamad released 308 political prisoners to meet a request of the protestors. King Hamad has also called for the dismissal of some of his top aids to appease the crowd.

2. Honorable Surrender
a. King Hamad has used his military and security forced to forcefully dismiss the crowd. He negotiated very little and never offered terms of his own or recognized the terms of the protest until the use of force was already engaged against protestors.

b. King Hamad could have offered terms and engaged in negotiations with the protestors, which could have possibly prevented the deaths and injuries that occurred on February 17th and 18th.

3. Restoration
a. King Hamad has begun a process of appeasing the crowd through the dismissal of aids and the release of political prisoners.

b. A restoration process has not begun because the protests in Pearl Square continue. During-War Distinction - war should only be waged against
enemy combatants. The protestors can not be
considered combatants in that they did not innitiate
combat. There is, however, some grey area here in that
the protestors did create the situation.

Proportionality - the civilian injuries were clearly excessive
of what the citizens have been proposing. The removal
of a King from a monarchy is not proportional to the
killing of people

Military necessity - The government clearly used more
force than would be necessary to quell the protests.
If the government and King Hamad were to give the people
what they want, no one had to become injured or be killed. Red was chosen due to it being the traditional color of Persian Gulf States.
The white band represents the peace that has been made with other Persian Gulf States.
The serated side with five points represents the five Pillars of Islam
Most of the Population works in services or manufacturing.
Services: Medicine and teaching have been thriving, especially amongst women for the first time.
Manufacturing: Construction, engineering, and modern electric supplies. Many of the jobs in Bahrain have to do with some sort of engineering or construction due to its constant urbanization. Pearl Square
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