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Commas I, II, III, IV Restrictive / Non-restrictive Clauses
Transcript of Commas I, II, III, IV Restrictive / Non-restrictive Clauses
For camp, the children need sturdy shoes, which were expensive.
If you remove a nonrestrictive element from a sentence, the meaning does not change dramatically.
Commas & Restrictive and Nonrestrictive
A restrictive element defines or limits the meaning of the word it modifies, and is, therefore, essential to the meaning of the word.
Restrictive elements are not set off with commas
Comma between Items in a Series
Comma in compound Sentences
Using Commas after Introducing Word Groups
Miscellaneous Comma Usage
Commas are punctuation marks that help readers understand a sentence.
Commas can be used to separate three or more items in a series, including the second to last item in a list, which is usually followed by the conjunction AND.
Laura plays field hockey, basketball, and soccer.
I work, go to school, and take care of my family.
Bring a sleeping bag, tent, and lantern.
A compound sentence contains two complete sentences joined by one of these words :
and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.
My husband was working,
i went shopping.
I like chocolate ice cream,
my friend likes strawberry.
I called my best friend,
she agreed to drive me to work.
Commas can be used after an introductory word or word group.
Commas around appositives and interrupters
An appositive comes directly after a noun or pronoun and renames it.
, will take her nursing exam this summer.
Commas with names- Direct address:
Put commas around the name of someone you are addressing by name.
Yes or No: Commas should be put around "yes" or "no" in a sentence.
Titles: Put commas around titles of people.
Word groups describing nouns or pronouns (adjective clauses, adjective phrases, and appositives) are restrictive or nonrestrictive.
are words that come before (introducing) an independent clause.
is a group of words that can stand alone as a sentence.
Introductory groups can be one word or a phrase
An interrupter is an aside or transition that interrupts the flow of a sentence and does not affect its meaning.
Example: My brother,
, had a good reason for being late.
, I want you to come look at this.
, I believe you are right.
Sarah Belinsky, M.D., has been appointed to the board.
For camp, the children needed clothes
If you remove a restrictive element from a sentence, the meaning changes significantly, becoming more general than intended.
A nonrestrictive element describes a noun or pronoun whose meaning has already been clearly defined or limited.
Because it contains nonessential or parenthetical information, a nonrestrictive element is set off with commas.
Some meaning is lost , but the defining characteristics of the person or thing described remain the same as before.
Commas are punctuation marks that help readers understand a sentence and know where the pauses are in the sentence.
the president is coming to visit our city.
Because of the rain
, she closed all the windows.
In the event of fire,
people should leave the building.
As a result of the accident,
the man had to be hospitalized.
Address: Commas can be used to separate the elements of an address included in a sentence.
My address is 820 Orchard Street,
Los Angeles, California 90011.
Commas in dates:
Commas can be used
to separate the day from the year with a comma
I was born on August 3, 1995.
He told me that our father was in the hospital but I did not believe him.
Once the wound is properly bandaged the player is allowed to return to the game.
Yes I would like more water please.
Basically Oscar you need to finish your homework on time.
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses
During her childhood she enjoyed going to the beach with her family.
The department which had several police dogs trained the animals to find criminals.
I do not like biology nor do I like chemistry.
Angel wants to visit Paris Italy Germany and China
We can go to the zoo or we can go to the movie theater
David who is my next door neighbor won the election.