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Lesson Planning

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Neil Finney

on 14 February 2013

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Transcript of Lesson Planning

Lesson Planning To analyze
To predict
To locate
To explain
To summarize
To select
To list
To choose
To classify Observable actions/products To know
To understand
To learn
To appreciate
To study
To realize
To value
To review Vague & unobservable SWBAT Verbs are Essential A vocabulary presentation

For each item:

-Elicit/give the item - try & get it from a std - if not you'll have to give it

-Model - x2/3 - i.e. say it aloud so that all of the stds can hear it - if the std is saying it well then let her/him model it.

-Elicit the number of syllables 'How many syllables are there?'

-Elicit the stress placement 'Where's the stress?' Model again

-Chorus drill - the whole class say it x3/4

- Individual drill - dot around & elicit it from ½ of the group in turn

- Elicit a sentence with the word in it 'Give me a sentence.' If the sentence can highlight the meaning of the word then all the better.

- Model x2

- Chorus drill

- Individual drill

Before going on to the next item, recap the words introduced so far.
This has to be done swiftly & the more you try it out the smoother & more effective it will be. 2.Vocab presentation
Tch:'I'm going to tell you a story about a boy I used to go out with. Here's a picture of him (hold up pic & stick it to the wall) - what kind of person do you think he might be from just looking at the picture. (Stds throw out ideas) It only lasted about three months - the more I found out about him the less I could see we had in common.


'selfish'
The first thing was that he always used to think of himself, not anybody else. What's an adjective to describe someone like that?
Elicit or give if necessary the word - 'selfish '
Model word x3/4 i.e. say it out loud for all to hear
Elicit the number of syllables 'How many syllables are there? '2'
Elicit the stress placement - 'Where's the stress? 'first syllable'
Model again x2
Chorus drill x3/4 - all of the stds say the word in unison
Individual drill - elicit the word from 5/6 stds in turn

Elicit a sentence with the word in it - you really want one that highlights the meaning - here a definition will do -'He was selfish because he always thought about herself.'
Model x2/3
Chorus drill
Individual drill Present target language... Pronunciation... Meaning... Form... Drill the language...
Model the language...
Concept Checking Questions... Controlled Practice...
Support the students... Monitor...
Correct...
Accuracy... Free Practice...
Teacher less involved... More student centered Student talk time Teacher talk time Substitution Drills
In a substitution drill the teacher gives an example sentence, then asks the students to change one or more words in it.

I, New Zealand...

Student 1: I come from New Zealand

Teacher: Your mother, Lao

Student 2: Your mother comes from Lao

Teacher: Sim and Boong

Student 3: Sim and Boong come from Lao Transformation Drills

As a substitution drill changes vocabulary, a transformation drill changes grammar:

Teacher:

I went to George Town

I have been to George Town

I went to Hyderabad

I have been to Hyderabad

I went to George Town

Student : I have been to George Town

Teacher: Hyderabad

Student: I have been to Hyderabad Choral Drills

Also known as listen and repeat, choral drills are mainly used for modeling target language. The teacher says a word or sentence out loud and students try to repeat it verbatim with correct pronunciation, stress and intonation. The teacher may even mark the utterance on the board with phonetic script, stressed syllables and rising or falling intonation; possibly even tapping out the rhythm of the stressed syllables while enunciating.

The goal is accuracy and the standard is high. However, a lot of listen and repeat can become very boring and demotivating, especially for long and difficult sentences.

For a very long sentence, one useful technique is to have students repeat one extra phrase at a time starting from the back of the sentence. For example:

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

The lazy dog

repeat

jumps over the lazy dog

repeat

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
Job Fair

A Role-play Line-up

Focus:

The purpose of this lesson is to give false beginners some practice at job interviews in English. This lesson is intended more for adults or college students. Although, a real job interview will be much more complex, this lesson should give students a look at the vocabulary that is necessary for doing a job interview in English. Word Prompts

Word Prompts can be used as a guessing game that works with each level of teaching.

Elementary Level

Divide the class into two teams. Each team will write a list of words, which the other team has to guess. One member of the team will start by describing his word in every way, but without calling the exact word. For example he chooses the word horse. He can say “It is tall.” “It weighs many pounds.” “It is usually brown.” “Some of them race.” He goes on until a student from the other team guesses the word. Then, it’s the student from the B team’s turn.

Intermediate Level

For this level, the same game could be played; but this time members from the opposite team will ask questions in order to guess what the chosen word is, while the team that’s proposing the word will assist with prompts. For example, the other team asks questions like “Is it in this room?” "Is it round or square?" “Is it a person” “Which letter does it begin with?” The answer could be a chair or a table, or even a student who can eventually be discovered by the initial of the name and finally the whole name being given. Lesson plans do not consist of statements such as: "Today we'll cover unit 4 in the student book." Rather, lesson plans are designs for learning. They include these basics:

Objectives. What is your objective or objectives

For example:
-The student will be able to recite the letters of the alphabet.

-The student will be able to sing a song in three part harmony.

-The student will be able to access information from an Internet search engine.

-The student, given informational-type text, will be able to identify the main idea.

-The student will be able to define basic literary terms and apply them to a specific British work.

-The student will be able to describe the causes of pollution. Teaching Methods The Direct Method

In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation. Grammar-translation

Learning is largely by translation to and from the target language. Grammar rules are to be memorized and long lists of vocabulary learned by heart. There is little or no emphasis placed on developing oral ability. Audio-lingual

The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits. There is much practice of dialogues of every situations. New language is first heard and extensively drilled before being seen in its written form. The structural approach


This method sees language as a complex of grammatical rules which are to be learned one at a time in a set order. So for example the verb "to be" is introduced and practised before the present continuous tense which uses "to be" as an auxiliary. Suggestopedia

The theory underlying this method is that a language can be acquired only when the learner is receptive and has no mental blocks. By various methods it is suggested to the student that the language is easy - and in this way the mental blocks to learning are removed. Total Physical Response (TPR)

TPR works by having the learner respond to simple commands such as "Stand up", "Close your book", "Go to the window and open it." The method stresses the importance of aural comprehension. Communicative language teaching (CLT)

The focus of this method is to enable the learner to communicate effectively and appropriately in the various situations she would be likely to find herself in. The content of CLT courses are functions such as inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as the expression of time, quantity, location. The Silent Way

This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to say as little as possible in order that the learner can be in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of the mother tongue. Community Language Learning

In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student. Thank you!

"Anything that can go wrong, will go wrong". A Word of Advice What went well in the lesson?
What problems did I experience?
Are there things I could have done differently?
How can I build on this lesson to make future lessons successful? REFLECTION An activity to wrap up the lesson
draw the ideas together for students at the end: How will you provide feedback to learners to correct their misunderstandings and reinforce their learning?

Students summarize the major concepts
Teacher recaps the main points
Teacher sets the stage for the next phase of learning CLOSURE Assess the learning:
Teacher made tests
In-class or homework assignment
Project to apply the learning to real-life situation
Recitations and summaries
Performance assessments
Rubrics
Portfolios
Journals
Informal assessment ASSESSMENT Do not introduce new material during this activity.

Avoid asking higher level thinking questions if students have not yet engaged in such practice during the lesson.

Provide guided and independent practice (differentiated practice) ASSESSMENT In-class or homework assignment,
In-class work does not always have to be written: oral presentation, role-playing,

How will you evaluate the objectives that were identified?

Have students practiced what you are asking them to do for evaluation? (Task and learning outcomes – objectives must be aligned) ASSESSMENT Choose one of the following techniques to plan the lesson content based on what your objectives are:

Demonstration: list in detail, and sequence, the steps to be performed;

Explanation: outline the information to be explained; Discussion: list of key questions to guide the discussion PRESENTATION/DEVELOPMENT Provides specific activities to assist students in developing the new knowledge,

Provides modeling of a new skill,

Take into consideration what students are learning (a new skill, a rule or formula, a concept, fact, idea, an attitude, or a value). PRESENTATION/DEVELOPMENT A detailed, step-by-step description of what the teacher and learners do during the lesson,

What does the teacher do to facilitate learning and manage the various activities? PRESENTATION/DEVELOPMENT An activity used at the beginning of a lesson to attract learners’ attention and interest; play a game, tell a joke or story, discuss a current news topic, ask a question, use a saying, have an activity, use a discussion starter, etc.

Relate new lesson to a previous one

Review content from a previous lesson (whole-class, partners, in writing) INTRODUCTION A list of instructional materials needed for the lesson: realia, books, equipment, resources, textbooks, story books, worksheets, manipulatives

What needs to be prepared in advance? (typical for science classes and cooking or baking activities)

Have enough manipulatives (when needed) for groups or individuals.

Use visual, and auditory resources INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES AND MATERIALS What must students already be able to do before this lesson?

What concepts have to be mastered in advance to accomplish the lesson objectives?

 What factual, procedural, strategic knowledge do learners have? PREVIOUS/PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE A description of what the student will be able to do at the end of the lesson INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Instructional objectives
Previous/Prerequisite knowledge
Instructional resources
Introduction
Presentation/Development
Assessment ● Closure ● Reflection COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN The greater the structure of a lesson and the more precise the directions on what is to be accomplished, the higher the achievement rate.

Wong, H. The First Days of Teaching: How To Be An Effective Teacher WHY SHOULD WE PLAN LESSONS? Plans are developed to provide students with meaningful learning experiences,
Encourages reflection, refinement, and improvement,
Enhances student achievement. WHY SHOULD WE PLAN LESSONS? Lesson Plans are records that can be used to plan for assessment (quizzes, tests, etc)
Lesson Plans can be used by other teachers when the class teacher is absent.
provides a record of what has been taught
Provides security for novice teachers
To help with classroom management by keeping students on-task and engaged WHY SHOULD WE PLAN LESSONS? Successful teaching is linked to effective lesson planning,
Provides direction for effective teaching,
Identifies the knowledge, skills and dispositions of teaching,
Thinking about a lesson in advance helps to anticipate potential problems,
provides structure for classroom activities, WHY SHOULD WE PLAN LESSONS? Successful teaching is linked to effective lesson planning

Thinking about a lesson in advance helps to anticipate potential problems; provides structure for classroom activities;provides a record of what has been taught

Provides security for novice teachers WHY SHOULD WE PLAN LESSONS? Lesson plans should reflect the individual needs, strengths, and interests of the teacher and the learners.

Anticipate what is likely to happen as you teach your planned lesson, and make adjustments as needed. KEY THOUGHTS ON LESSON PLANNING Objectives

To discuss the value of effective planning

To outline various components of an effective lesson plan

To examine sample lessons

To provide a generic template for a lesson plan EFFECTIVE LESSON PLANNING Cooperative groups
Inquiry learning
Direct instruction
Differentiation
Direct Instruction Graphic organizers
Creative play
Peer presenting
Performances
Role playing
Debates
Game making
Projects PRESENTATION/DEVELOPMENT Ability of students
No. of Students
No. of Males
No. of Females
Age of Students General Information:
Subject
Date
Topic
Sub-Topic
Lesson duration COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN methodologies of classroom teaching PPP method One alternative to PPP is the ESA model, in which three components will usually be present in any teaching sequence.

“E” stands for Engage. The point is that unless students are engaged emotionally with what is going on, their learning will be less effective.

“S” stands for Study, and describes any teaching and learning element where the focus is on how something is constructed, whether it is relative clauses, specific intonation patterns, the construction of a paragraph or text, the way a lexical phrase is made and used, or the collocation possibilities of a particular word.

“A” stands for Activate and this means any stage at which students are encouraged to use all and/or any of the language they know. Communicative activities, for example, are designed to activate the students’ language knowledge. Today‟s Objectives

Examine the importance of lesson planning
Review the structure of an L2 lesson
Outline different phases in a lesson
Discuss considerations for lesson planning
Create goals and performance objectives
Design a daily lesson plan Brainstorm

What comes to mind when you hear the words “lesson plan”? Why Do We Plan?

Successful teaching is linked to effective lesson planning

Thinking about a lesson in advance helps to anticipate potential problems

Provides security for novice teachers

LPs can be used by substitutes when we can‟t be there

To help with classroom management by keeping students on-task and engaged Creating Learning Objectives

Performance objectives are the most important part of a LP
- Begins with „Students will be able to (SWBAT)….‟
- Use THEME as a springboard for identifying objectives for a lesson
- Performance objectives are MEASURABLE and DESCRIBE what Ss will be able to do in and with the Target Language in terms of meaningful language use

Objectives focus on Students‟ ability to accomplish a language function (e.g., to communicate real information) Importance of Warm-Ups Warm-up

- Serves to announce beginning of class and capture student attention
- Helps Ss transition from previous class into TL
~-5 mins in length
- May relate new lesson to a previous one by recycling material through personalized practice
- Capture students‟ attention (play a game, tell a joke or story, discuss a current news topic etc)
- Review content from a previous lesson (whole-class, partners, in writing)
- Students review homework in pairs Importance of Warm-Ups and Closure Closure
Let your Students know class is coming to an end by:
- Reviewing or summarizing the key points of a lesson
- Relating the lesson to course goals
- Making a link to a forthcoming lesson
- Encouraging Students (to end on a positive note)
- Praising Students for what they accomplished during the lesson
- Announcements
- Telling a cultural tidbit or anecdote
- Review the day‟s structure
- Have an “exit pass” Sample Questions for Preparing a Lesson

What do I want my Students to learn from this lesson?
What are my objectives (measurable goals)?
What is the topic or theme of this lesson?
What resources (textbook, workbook, music, puppets, realia, etc.) are available?
How will the lesson connect to what Ss already know?
How will I begin and conclude the lesson?
How will I arrange student groupings?  Teacher B: I always time each activity to the minute. I never
spend any more time on the activity than planned, and stop
and interrupt the activity when the time is up.  Teacher A: If I see Ss are having a lot of fun and being really
engaged, I always let the activity run longer.  How might these two teachers‟ „pacing‟ decisions
affect their lessons? Teacher Quotes on Pacing  With a block schedule, change activities every 20
minutes or so and allow for movement halfway
through the period  With beginners, use more activities that are shorter
in length to avoid fatigue (~ 4-8 minutes each)  Activities may vary in length from 1-15 minutes (or
even longer) Pacing and Timing  To make an activity successful, know what you will
do and what your Students will do  Activities are the „building blocks‟ of a lesson
 Textbooks provide general ideas of how to
implement an activity leaving the pedagogical
procedure up to the teacher Making Decisions about Activities/Tasks Decisions and Considerations in Lesson Planning Importance of Warm-Ups and Closure  How will I begin and conclude the lesson?
 How will I arrange student groupings?  How will the lesson connect to what Ss already
know?  What are my objectives (measurable goals)?
 What is the topic or theme of this lesson?
 What resources (textbook, workbook, music,
puppets, realia, etc.) are available?  What do I want my Students to learn from this
lesson? Sample Questions for Preparing a Lesson  Expressed as a real-life task or behavior
 Interesting and motivating for students  Expressed in terms of a communicative/culminating
activity  Expressed in terms of demonstrable/observable student
behaviors (Bloom‟s Taxonomy).  Performance objectives should be: Creating Learning Objectives Learning (Performance)
Objectives  What comes to mind when you hear the words
“lesson plan”? Brainstorm Backward Design " The only place success comes before work
is in the dictionary." -- May Smith 5. Reduce in-class time not directly related to
communication. 4. Use pair/group work and physical movement. 3. Create a theme and performance objective(s)
with non-grammar focus for each lesson. 2. Keep students active and involved. 1. Speak (nearly) 100% target language.  Ten non-negotiable principles: Lesson Planning Essentials  Decide ahead of time which activities can be shorted
and how (in case the need arises)  Monitor student performance as a „time‟ gage  Set a time limit for activities or a goal and make
those clear to students  Pick activities of appropriate difficulty level  Avoid predictable and repetitive activities  Model what you want them to learn/do Tips for Pacing a Lesson  How much time will each activity take?  How will I introduce the Students‟ learning task?
Will I model? Give instructions in the L1?  Does the lesson move in manageable steps for Ss?
 Is there a balance between student- and teacher-
centered activities?  Do I move from input to output activities?  Do I have a variety of activities in my lesson?  How does the activity work? How are the Students
engaged? What is their performance task? Questions to Ask Yourself When Planning Activities  Telling a cultural tidbit or anecdote
 Review the day‟s structure
 Have an “exit pass”  Announcements  Praising Students for what they accomplished during the
lesson  Encouraging Students (to end on a positive note)  Making a link to a forthcoming lesson  Reviewing or summarizing the key points of a lesson
 Relating the lesson to course goals  Let your Students know class is coming to an end by Closure  Students review homework in pairs  Review content from a previous lesson (whole-class,
partners, in writing)  Capture students‟ attention (play a game, tell a joke or
story, discuss a current news topic etc)  May relate new lesson to a previous one by recycling
material through personalized practice  Helps Ss transition from previous class into TL
 ~ 5 mins in length  Serves to announce beginning of class and capture
student attention Warm-up  Closure  Extension  Providing comprehensible input
 Guiding participation  Setting the stage  A typical lesson involves: The Five-Step Communicative Lesson Plan  What will I do if I have too little or too much time? sections?  Do I know exactly how to set up an activity?
 How much time will I need for each activity?
 How will I organize the lesson into stages or  How well do I understand the content of the lesson?
 Do I know exactly what the Ss have to do during each
activity?  Why should I teach this lesson?  What activities will I use? Sample Questions for Preparing a Lesson •Learners will describe in writing why their favorite foods are healthy or
not. •Learners will instruct a partner how to make a baguette sandwich. •Learners will role play the life cycle of a frog. Part Two: For each of the following classroom activities, write one objective
for the target language you teach. •Learners will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the structure
of a story. •Learners will be able to compare meal hours in the target and native
cultures. •Learners will be able to describe self. Part One: For each of the following lesson objectives, think of a classroom
activity for the target language you teach. Determining Learning Objectives/Outcomes  Examine the importance of lesson planning
 Review the structure of an L2 lesson
 Outline different phases in a lesson
 Discuss considerations for lesson planning
 Create goals and performance objectives
 Design a daily lesson plan Today‟s Objectives PLANNING FOR SUCCESS! Lesson Planning 101 2. What are other text examples you might
use in your classroom? 1. Use Oller’s Episode Hypothesis as a lens
for selecting oral and print texts to
examine the samples to see if they meet
his two aspects of motivation and logical
structure . Integrating Oral and Printed texts my teaching? •How can I integrate language and content in •What should I keep in mind as I select oral and
printed texts? •How should I respond to what students say? L2 input have? •What characteristics should my teacher talk or Things to Consider (A.K.A. - OKAY, I’VE GOT THE CLASSROOM
AND THE STUDENTS….NOW WHAT DO I DO
WITH THEM?!) Organizing Content and Planning
for Integrated Instruction lead to mastery of the objective(s). (textbook) activities in a logical progression to 10. Do not be tied to the textbook. Choose 9. Contextualize all activities. 8. Keep a brisk pace to the lesson. 7. Integrate culture into each lesson. 6. Use visual & auditory aids.  Ten non-negotiable principles: Lesson Planning Essentials directions, praising) needed (e.g. asking and answering question, giving  Choose the specific LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS  Choose the CONTEXT (e.g., classroom environment,
in the shopping center, informal gathering at friend‟s
house)  Choose your TOPIC or theme (e.g., shopping, family,
traveling)  Ask yourself „What do I want Students to learn and
be able to do?‟ Making Decisions about Lesson Content  Objectives focus on Students‟ ability to
accomplish a language function (e.g., to
communicate real information)  Performance objectives are MEASURABLE and DESCRIBE
what Ss will be able to do in and with the Target Language in
terms of meaningful language use  Use THEME as a springboard for identifying objectives for a
lesson  Begins with „Students will be able to (SWBAT)….‟  Performance objectives are the most important
part of a LP Creating Learning Objectives •Theme-based •Content-enriched •Content-related •Content-based Integrating Content  To help with classroom management by keeping students
on-task and engaged  LPs can be used by substitutes when we can‟t be there  LPs are records that can be used to plan for assessment
(quizzes, tests, etc)  Provides security for novice teachers  Successful teaching is linked to effective lesson planning
 Thinking about a lesson in advance helps to anticipate
potential problems; provides structure for classroom
activities; provides a record of what has been taught Why Do We Plan? Teacher Talk - Student Talk During the Engage phase, the teacher tries to arouse the students? interest and engage their emotions. This might be through a game, the use of a picture, audio recording, video sequence, a dramatic story, or an amusing anecdote. The aim is to arouse the students? interest, curiosity, and attention. Over the years the PPP model has always assumed that students come to lessons already motivated to listen or engage. The results of many years of PPP teaching do not support this assumption.

The Study phase activities are those which focus on language or information and how it is constructed. The focus of study could vary from the pronunciation of one particular sound to the techniques an author uses to create excitement in a longer reading text. It could vary from an examination of a verb tense to the study of a transcript of an informal conversation. There are many different styles of study, from group examination of a text, to discovery related topic vocabulary, to the teacher giving an explanation of a grammatical pattern. Harmer says, ?Successful language learning in a classroom depends on a judicious blend of subconscious language acquisition (through listening and reading) and the kind of study activities we have looked at here.

In the Activate stage the exercises and activities are designed to get students to use the language as communicatively as they can. During the Activate, students do not focus on language construction or practice particular language patterns, but use their full language knowledge in the selected situation or task. Engage

Teachers try to arouse the students’ interest and involve their emotions.

Students should feel amused, moved, stimulated, and challenged in order to not feel bored. Planning

“The best teachers are those who think carefully about what they are going to do in their classes and who plan how they are going to organise the teaching and learning.”

Jeremy Harmer - The Practice of English Language Teaching, 1991 In Pre-planning, we will be looking at the following questions:


What should go into an English language lesson?

What is a lesson plan?

Why is planning important?

Do you need to plan if you have a course book?

What are the principles of planning? In Planning a lesson, those principles are put into action in a model plan for different stages of an actual lesson.

Aims and concepts

Contexts and marker sentences Starting a lesson

Presenting new language Controlled practice

Freer (less controlled) practice Finishing the lesson What should go into an English language lesson?

Every lesson is unique and is made up of different stages. Lessons can focus on grammar, vocabulary, reading or writing. They may contain listening and speaking activities and concentrate on introducing new language items or on revision. The actual content of any lesson will depend on what the teacher aims to achieve during the lesson, the students and the teaching situation. However there are some ideas that can be considered for every lesson.

Students who are interested in, involved in and enjoy what they are studying tend to make better progress and learn faster. As teachers, it is important then to provide students with lessons that are not only well-structured but which are also interesting and enjoyable. Careful thought and preparation will help to achieve this. When thinking about an English lesson it is useful to keep the following three elements in mind: These three elements, E. S. A. should be present in every teaching sequence, whatever your teaching point. But what do we mean by E. S. A.? It is important to engage the students. This means getting the students interested in the subject, in the class and in the language point and hopefully enjoying what they are doing. But why is this important? After all, you may feel that students come to school to learn, not to be entertained!

''If students are engaged, if they’re genuinely interested and involved in what’s going on, the chances are that they’re going to learn an awful lot better because they’re not just doing what they have to do because they’re in school, they’re also actively involved in what’s going on.''
Jeremy Harmer, author of The Practice of English Language Teaching - Lesson Plan, Programme 2

Engaging students is important for the learning process. Engaged students learn better and are likely to cause fewer discipline problems. is for Engage In any lesson students usually need something to study. In an English teaching lesson there needs to be some language focus for the class. Students need to be introduced systematically to the way that English is put together. The Study element of a lesson could be a focus on any aspect of the language, such as grammar or vocabulary and pronunciation. A Study stage does not have to be new language input. It could also cover revision and extension of previously taught material. is for study Simply telling students about the language is not usually enough to help them to learn it. In order for students to be able to develop their use of English, they need to be given the chance to produce it. In an Activate stage the students are given tasks, normally writing and or speaking activities which require students to use not only the language they are studying that day, but also other language that they have learnt. is for activate Here are some reasons why it’s important to let students have this kind of practice:

It gives students the chance to rehearse English, as if they were doing it in the real world but in the safe environment of the classroom.

Some theories of language learning suggest that by giving students this kind of practice, it helps them to ‘switch’ language they have been studying, into language which they can use instinctively without having to think about it.


• These kind of activities are often fun for the students. As we have mentioned before, providing an enjoyable classroom experience for students helps the learning process.

• This kind of activity, because it does not restrict the students to using only a particular area of language, is an effective way for both students and the teacher to assess how well the class is progressing.

• Providing suitable tasks which the students can achieve using lots of different language has a positive motivational effect on students. Motivated students tend to learn better. Sequence Variations of the ESA Model (from Harmer, 1998) ESA Straight Arrows sequence ESA (A) Boomerang Sequence EAASASEA (ETC) Patchwork sequence The Boomerang approach:
......after the Engage (E) phase,
...gets students to perform a task (A) using all and/or any language they know,
... and only then does the teacher go back to the language Study (S). The Study phase is then undertaken based on what the teacher witnessed in the students’ language performance. The teacher in short will fill in the gaps of the students’ knowledge. To check that learning has taken place,
...... the students are then re-activated (A). Harmer goes on to say that most classes are neither “Straight Arrow” nor “Boomerang” classes. They tend to be more mixed up than this. The sequences in his “Patchwork” lessons include all these elements, but can do so more than once and in various orders. A sequence such as E.A.A.S.S.E.S.A would be perfectly possible. Formative assessment: One minute Essay

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