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Capitalization and Punctuation
Transcript of Capitalization and Punctuation
Capitalization is writing a word with its first letter a capital letter. A capital letter at the beginning of the word is an important signal to the reader. A capital letter may indicate the beginning of the sentence and also may mark a significant in meaning.
Capitalize the names of historical events and periods, special events, holidays, and other calendar items.
The Holocaust was a very bad time in human history.
-My sister's Nut Cracker ballet recital will begin shortly.
-I can't wait until Christmas.
-My brother is going to play in the Boy's Basketball game this Friday.
Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and peoples.
-My friend's cousin is Mexican.
-He is Hispanic while my friend is White.
-My other friend is Jewish.
Capitalize the names of religions and their followers, holy days and celebrations, sacred writings, and specific deities.
-My religion is Christianity, so therefore, I'm a Christian.
-Hanukkah is a Jewish holiday.
-The Holy Bible is an example of a sacred writing.
-I believe that God is my savior.
Capitalize the names of business and brand names of business products.
-I can't decide whether I like the Apple iPhone or the Samsung Galaxy better.
Capitalize the names of planets, stars, constellations, and other heavenly bodies.
-I wonder if anyone will ever walk on Mars.
-I can always spot the Big Dipper easily.
-The Sun is the largest star.
-We live in the Milky Way galaxy.
Capitalize a person's title when the title comes before a person's name.
-How much homework do you have for Professor Harold's class?
Capitalize a word showing a family relationship when the word is used before or in a person's name, unless the word follows a possessive noun or pronoun.
-Tomorrow, Aunt Rebecca will bake us some cookies.
Capitalize the first and last words and all important words in titles and subtitles.
-Super Mario Bros: Rated E for Everyone.
Capitalize the names of awards, memorials, and monuments.
-The Nobel Peace Prize is a very honorable award.
-I've been to the Lincoln Memorial at Washington D.C..
-I've also seen the Washington Monument.
Do not capitalize the names of school subjects, except the names of language classes or course names that contain a number.
-I haven't taken Spanish at all this year.
-Do you have to go to English101 next?
Capitalize the first word in each sentence.
- Are you going to eat that sandwich?
- My laptop is about to die.
Capitalize the first word of a directly quoted sentence.
- "Capitalization is very important." My teacher said.
Capitalize the first word in both the salutation and closing of a letter.
- Dear Sally,
You left your bag at my house.
Capitalize the pronoun I.
-My friends and I hang out a lot.
Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives.
-I've always wanted to go to New York City.
-I really like to eat Italian food.
Capitalize the names of persons and animals.
-Jenna's dog Chowder likes to eat a lot.
Capitalize geographical names.
-Asia is a really big continent.
Capitalize the names of organizations, teams, government bodies, and institutions.
-The Habitat For Humanity organization helps people find affordable, good homes.
-The Vikings won against the Packers.
-My grandma is applying for the the U.S. Social Security Administration.
-The Avera Heart Hospital is where my mom works.
A comma is a punctuation mark indicating a pause between parts of a sentence. It is also used to separate items in a list and to mark the place of thousands in a large numeral.
Use commas to separate items in a series.
-The colors on the American flag are red, white, and blue.
Short, independent clauses may be separated by commas.
- Teachers teach, students learn.
Use commas to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun.
-I like that big, white dress.
Use a comma before
and, but, for, nor, or, so,
when it joins independent clauses.
-I like chocolate, but I can't eat a lot of it.
-I missed the bus, so I didn't go to school.
-Kate doesn't like James, yet she's nice to him.
Use commas to set off nonessential subordinate clauses and nonessential participle phrases.
-Even though it was very scary and dangerous, Kelly still wanted to ride the roller coaster.
-My notebook, filled with pages of my stories, is very large.
Use commas to set off an introductory word, participle phrase, prepositional phrases, or adverb clause.
-First, we have to look at the ingredients.
-With great cautiousness, Bob walked on the ice.
-The apple, on the counter, is rotten and old.
-Tom did the dishes once he got home from work.
Use commas to set off elements that interrupt a sentence.
-Mrs. Jen, our science teacher, will be gone tomorrow.
-Ted, however, will not be coming to the birthday party tonight.
-Jules, my best friend, is coming over today.
Words used in direct address.
-Mark, get your bike out of the driveway.
-Your homework, I believe, should be done by now.
Use a comma after a salutation of a personal letter and after the closing of any letter
How's life in the big city? How's the family?
I haven't seen you in a while. Is the weather nice there? How 'bout them airplane food?
A semi-colon is a punctuation mark indicating a pause, typically between two main clauses, that is more pronounced than that indicated by a comma.
Use a semi-colon between independent clauses that are closely related in meaning
-I like watching the sunset; I'm a morning person.
Use a semi-colon between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression
-My cat is a really dark brown color; however, some people still think it's black.
Use a semi-colon between items in a series if the items contain commas.
-The places I've been to in the United States are Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Chicago, Illinois; Atlanta, Georgia; San Francisco, California; Las Vegas, Nevada, Los Angeles, California; Minneapolis, Minnesota and a few more.
A colon is a punctuation mark (:) used after a statement (usually after an independent clause), that introduces a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series.
Use a colon before a list of items.
-You will need all of the following for this project: a pencil, a ruler, a piece of paper, and some markers.
Use a colon before a long formal statement or long quotation.
-My mother said: "Don't forget to set your alarm. I always end up bringing you to school because you're always late.
Use a colon between the hour and the minute.
- It is 4:53 AM right now.
Use a colon between the chapter and the verse in Biblical references and between titles and subtitles.
- Proverbs 18:24
A man of many companions may come to ruin, but there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother.
-Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman's Search for Everything Across Italy, India and Indonesia
Use a colon after a salutation in a business letter
- Dear Jones,
You left your keys on your desk again.
BY: SAM DISTOR
Capitalization and Punctuation