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Information Processes and Technology Part 3 - Analysing -

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Steph Shields

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of Information Processes and Technology Part 3 - Analysing -

Non - computer procedures
What is it?
Social and Ethical Issues
Hardware Requirements
Software Requirements
What is analysing?
Hardware requirements for analysing are determined by the quantity of data and the type of analysis being performed on this data.
Transforms data into information
Makes sense of the data, changing it into a form that is understood by humans
Primary goal of information systems: transform data into information
Analysing is vital to achieving the purpose of all information systems.

Does not alter the data; instead it makes use of the data to create information
Data is the raw material of analysis; however unlike production processes, analysis does not change or alter its raw materials.
Uses a range of techniques to examine and summarise the data - information is created
Common analysis techniques: searching, selecting, sorting, charting and comparing data

The purpose of analysis: summarise the data, make predictions, identify trends or to simulate some real life situation.
Information will only be accurate if the data is both valid and complete.
Hardware Requirements
Data incorrectly analysed
Software applications search and select data using a criterion.
The user is able to directly start a search to find all occurrences of a particular piece of data.
Searching takes place as an important part of a larger process

Modelling - the process or act of creating a model
A simulation alters various parameters of a model, often including time, to produce imitations of a system’s operation.

Information Processes and Technology Part 3 - Analysing -
Hardware Requirements
Hard Disks (Secondary Storage)
RAM (Random Access Memory)
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
Searching/Selecting Data
What-if Scenarios
Unauthorised analysis of data
Large amounts of data require larger amounts of secondary storage compared to the rather small requirements for storing small amounts of data.
- More importantly, this data needs to be available for analysis by the CPU in sufficient quantity. This means it must be retrieved from storage in a sufficient time.

There are three essential hardware components which influence the efficiency of the analysing process:

Secondary Storage (Hard Disks)
Primary Storage (RAM)
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
In order for the analysing process to work quickly and efficiently, the secondary storage must provide data to the RAM at a sufficient speed and in sufficient quantities to meet the demands of the CPU.
The best way to determine secondary storages efficiency would be by recording the time taken for the data required to be read and successfully placed into RAM.
Most hard disks are used to store data supporting many different applications, which include many different types of analysing processes.
Most hard disks include a fast memory area called cache; during read operations data passes into cache, this includes the required data together with the data the system predicts may soon be needed.

The total amount of RAM installed is the most critical measure.
RAM holds both the software and the data used by the CPU during processing.

How to improve performance? : Add extra RAM
How fast the data in RAM can be accessed is important for analysing processes:
- Different types of RAM operate at different speeds
- RAM chips deliver data at different speeds

Factors determining the performance of the CPU include:
- The number of bits
- The speed
- The nature
Different CPU designs are suited to different types of processes:
- These measures are only reliable for processors of the same design

How to determine the best CPU for a particular information system’s analysing processes:
Execute the same process on various types of CPU and record the time taken
CPU’s do not operate in isolation
Uses a variety of software and data scenarios

Software Requirements
Nearly all software performs analysing tasks
The efficiency of analysing processes is based on the organisation of the data

If the source data is not sorted - searching requires each data item to be examined
If the data is sorted appropriately - the search process can be more efficient.
Simulation is a process that imitates the behaviour of a system or object
Modelling and simulation done by a computer are classified as analysing tasks

What if scenarios created using computers perform similar processes; different sets of inputs are analysed to determine a set of outputs.
Aim: to predict the likely or possible consequences for each set of inputs.
The inputs or data that is changed; the processing that transforms these inputs into information stays the same.
When designing a what if scenario it is important to understand the nature of the analysis processes
Spreadsheets automatically recalculate each formula immediately after any input data is altered.
The analysis of data often causes social and ethical issues, due to concerns over privacy, security and accuracy.
Non - Computer Procedures
Digital data that has been organised appropriately improves efficiency and accuracy of analysing tasks
Dp it by: not using computers or using non-computer based analysing techniques.

Searching Manual Filing Systems
Searching for particular data within a manual filing system can be time consuming
Files can only be viewed by a single person at any one time
If a business has a manual filing system containing a file for each client, sorted by their names, they will end up with hundreds of files
If the files are not sorted then the time taken to search for the data increases.
Some tasks could easily be done through a computerised system rather than spending time searching through each client’s files.
Many businesses and organisations continue to use manual filing systems

Non-computer Model and Simulations
Most modern products are designed and their operation is modelled and simulated by computers.
Before production begins, a non-computer model or prototype is built and tested.
For example: motorbike and car manufacturers create prototypes of items before production.

Privacy Act 1988
- organisations which hold data about an individual is required to explain how their data will be used.

This act gives rules and guidelines to organisations and companies about how they can analyse their data.

The data used for analysis may be correct, but the actual process of analysing itself may be corrupt.
Inaccuracies often occur when trying to predict future trends
There may be undetected errors within the analysis process

Linking Databases for Analysis
Linking together databases can be used to formulate new information that was not present in any of the individual databases.
This is called ‘data mining’. Data mining is an analysis process which discovers new relationships among the data.
In an attempt to find new patterns, data mining is usually applied to large databases
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