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Copy of Astronomy

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Hilarie Beam

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Astronomy

the sun
the solar system

what is this?
why is this not our galaxy?
our position
average size barred spiral galaxy

looking through a disc
if you wanted to count:
normal clear night = 3000
really dark, no moon = 9000
good pair of binoculars = 200,000
small telescope = 15,000,000
milky way stars between 100,000,000,000 and 400,000,000,000
120,000 light years across
our sun 27,000 light years from the galactic core
sun is an average star
sun is an average star
some super giants like rigel and Betelgeuse
vast majority are red dawarfs (dim & low mass)
made from the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, gas and dust
gravity and motion stops everything heading off into space or crashing into the sun
about 150 worlds in our solar system
IO has active volcanoes
europa has oceans of water
titan has rivers, lakes and oceans of liquid methane
not possible to draw the solar system to scale
earth the size of a pea - Jupiter would be 300 meters away
Pluto would be two and a half KM away & the size of a bacterium (average 500 times small than coarse sand)
Nearest star 16,000 km
sun has been around for 4.5 billion years - if it lasts for another 6 billion years whatever intelligent life forms are around then will be as different to us as we are to bacteria
from Pluto the sun looks like a pin head
Pluto is last on charts but not the edge of our solar system
Traveling at approx 40,000mph won't reach the Oort Cloud for 10,000 years
as far as we know no human will ever leave the the solar system - it's just too far - but what if we could
this will give us an idea of what is in the solar system and their relative sizes are
after you leave the pull of the suns gravity there are vast amounts of nothingness for a very long time.
Alpha Centauri closest star cluster is 4.3 light years which is 100,000,000 times further than a trip to the moon
in a spaceship it would take 25,000 years
space is big
to reach the galactic core it would take longer than we have existed as beings
soo, lets look a little close to home
light travels at a certain speed
in a vacuum about 300,000,000 meters per second
mediums like air, water and glass slow it down slightly
train at the speed of light could travel around the earth 7 times a second
light could reach the moon in 1.255 seconds
sounds fast - infuriatingly slow when talking about the vastness of space
nothing faster than light
light is a constant
time slows down to accommodate light
36,000,000 miles from the heart of the solar system
huge temperature swing - day = 427 degrees Celsius - night = -173 (highest in ireland 33.3 c)
had a atmosphere at the beginning
lost its atmosphere since it is hot and small
mercury is 1/7 surface area of the earth
mass is just 5% when compared to the earth
a day (sunrise to sunrise) on mercury lasts longer than its year
Atmospheres are the first linef defence against violent impacts
13 times a century mercury passes between us and the sun (next one 9th may 2016)
2008 the messenger space probe took sent us the first images ever seen by humans of parts of mercury's scorched surface.
for the last 4.6 billion years mercury has been bombarded with countless comets and asteroids
its whole history is mapped out on its surface
unlike the earth, mercury has no real atmosphere to slow objects down or break them up
anything that hits mercury does so intact and at full speed
67,000,000 miles from the sun
brightest planet in the night sky
it takes 243 earth days for venus to rotate on its axis
year takes 225 earth days
similar size to the earth
similar mass
retrograde motion
no satellites
dense atmosphere of carbon dioxide traps heat resulting in surface temperatures of 462 degrees celsius (hottest in the solar system)
it is thought venus once had oceans before they evaporated
the venus express shuttle discovered over 1000 volcanoes larger than 20km on the surface
earth formed from dust grains merging together at the time of the suns formation
early earth tried to cool down and solidify when an object about the size of mars crashed into it
a lot of light materials was knocked off to form the moon - heavy stuff stayed to form the earth
comets start to hit the earth to form the oceans (heavy bombardment)
earth still cooling off through volcanism and plate tectonics
earth comes the anglo-saxon word for ground or soil - good name?
4,500,000,000 years old
3,600,000,000 years ago life started
once believed the earth was the centre of the universe
picture take for the apollo mission changed the way we think about the earth - environmental movement
100 tons of small meteorites hit the earth every day
meteor is a piece of space debris that burns up in the atmosphere
meteorite is a meteor that survives the fall through the atmosphere and lands on the earth
200,000 people are born every day
172,800 die every day
mariana trench is 10.9km deep
life and weather constantly change the face of the earth
footprints on the moon could last for ever
earth looked a lot different as life was getting started
lets step out our own solar system
imagine you are creating a scale poster and you want to use the correct size objects to represent the planets and the correct distance between the objects to represent space
cut to footage from half way
somehow trillions of atoms arrange themselves into an agreeable structure to result in you
this particular arrangement has never been tried before and will never exist again
if we were to dismantle you one atom at a time we would be left with a pile of atomic dust that individually never was alive
you could hope to live for about 650,000 hours - after this your atoms will disassemble themselves and go off to be something else
rejoice in the fact that it has happened at all since as far as we can tell it hasn't happened anywhere else in the universe
so how did it start
we always see the same side of the moon
the moon exerts a pull on the oceans to give us tides
it's really the earth moving whilst the water stays elongated that makes the tides go in and out twice a day
on the moon a person weights about 16.5% (1/6th) of their weight here on earth
JFK speech in September 1962 declares that men will walk on the moon before the decade is over
not everyone saw the Apollo missions as a good idea
12 people have walked on the moon, all male, all american
China have have recently declared their intention to land people on the moon
this is a short animation showing how the astronauts got to the moon and returned home safely
actual footage of the Apollo 11 landing
1972 was the last time someone walked on the moon
NASA have plans to build a station on the moon in the near future
less gravity means it could be more cost effective to launch missions from the moon
already growing food in space
show the students videos (stem)
take notes or video ideas
take notes on planets
does the moon change shape
stem video about the phases of the moon
make our own video
can you see the moon tonight
paint the phases of the moon on dark card or a T shirt
moon box
class exercises
moon box
planisphere / star walk
paper airplane shuttle
telescope setup
why the moon looks bigger on the horizon
the night sky
use planisphere or device to locate:
star clusters
known as the red planet
2 known satellites (Phobos & Deimos)
Olympus Mon is the largest mountain in the solar system standing 21km high
Mars has large dust storms which sometimes last for months and cover the entire planet
Pieces of Mars have fallen to Earth due to volcanic eruptions
2004 Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars
2012 Curiosity rover lands on Mars
Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system
67 known moons
4 famous large Galilean moons (IO, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto
Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system
the great red spot is a storm that has been raging for 350 years
you could fit 2 earth sized objects inside this storm
Jupiter has 2.5 times the mass of all the other combined
fastest spinning planet in the solar system (10 hour day)
Jupiter has a faint ring system
you can see Jupiter with binoculars or a telescope
what Jupiter looks like through a small telescope
Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system
Saturn is a gas giant
62 known moons
Saturn's extraordinary rings are made up of billions of particles of ice and rock
Saturn is less dense than water - find an ocean big enough and Saturn would float in it
Saturn's largest moon Titan is larger than the planet Mercury and the second largest moon in the solar system
Cassini - Huygens mission took about 7 years to land on Titan
show TMNT video to demonstrate picture by picture movie making
some pictures of Saturn
slightly smaller than our own moon
gravity from Jupiter heats up the interior melting the ice near the surface resulting in a salty ocean which could be up to 62 miles deep
lines on the surface are cracks on the ice, some of which are almost 2000 miles long
apart from Earth, Europa holds the most intriguing prospects for life in the solar system
7th planet from the sun
Uranus is the coldest planet in the solar system
one year on Uranus takes 84 earth years
Uranus is turned over on its side
near the poles, a day lasts about 42 earth years
Uranus has its own ring system
Uranus has 27 moons
Uranus has only been visited once by spacecraft (voyager 2 1986)
Neptune is the most distant planet
even when Pluto was still considered a planet there were times when Neptune was further from the sun (elliptical orbits)
Neptune is the smallest of the gas giants, although it is more massive than Uranus
Neptune has a mass of 17 times that of the Earth, however since it is spread out over a larger area its gravity would feel similar to that of the Earths
strongest winds in the solar system
Neptune has 13 moons
largest moon Triton - 235 degrees Celsius
a year on Neptune takes 155 earth years
Frank Drake (the Drake equation 1961) estimates there are about 10,000 communicative civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy
some scientists today feel this number is too high given that humans took almost 4,000,000,000 years to evolve
although life may have got started elsewhere the chances of 4 billion years of relative peace aren't that great
what could alien intelligent life look like?
lets look at some examples of how life evolved on Earth
what is needed for life
planet or moon needs to be in the habitable zone
the presence of liquid water
certain elements our bodies use to turn food into energy and reproduction
an atmosphere
source of energy (star)
what are the chances of life elsewhere




flowering plants
almost 2,000,000 species identified
most are invertebrates (without a backbone)
here are some examples
box jellyfish
moss water
brown jumping spider
robber crab
ribbontail ray
poison dart fog
giant tortoise
african white backed vulture
bald face saki
ground pangolin
naked mole rat
proboscis monkey
star-nosed mole
elephant seal
red lipped bafish
angora rabbit
goblin shark
solar system
life on earth
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