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Future Teaching


A Patriarca

on 13 January 2010

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Transcript of Future Teaching

Teaching in 2010 and Beyond The world today is an ever changing technological world. Living in this world humans are required to have a numerous amount of skills, which allow for effective participation in today’s society. The teachers in today’s and future classrooms have a number of challenges they face including ways of engaging students and teaching them the skills they need.
Introduction To be an effective teacher in the year 2010 and beyond it requires making changes to the strategies used to motivate students, classroom management techniques, teaching approach and the way in which students are assessed. These changes need to be made to meet the needs and diverse abilities of the students in this technological world. Classroom Managment Constructivism Constructivism is “knowledge construction it emphasises that learners develop their own understanding that makes sense to them; they don’t receive understanding from an outside source” (Eggen & Kauchak, 1997, p. 275). The future learner needs to be taught a number of life and career skills. Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, & Gunter (2008, p. 15) list these skills they are, •Flexibility and Adaptability
•Initiative and Self-Direction
•Social and Cross-Cultural Skills
•Productivity and Accountability
•Leadership and Responsibility
Through a constructivist teaching approach many of these skills would be addressed. Constructivism emphasises that students will construct their own knowledge and direct their learning. Through problem solving and building off current knowledge students will find their own understanding of the ideas. Traditionally in classrooms it was the teacher who had all the knowledge and controlled the students learning. It is not uncommon even today for teachers to actually learn from their students. That is why many teachers are taking a constructivist approach where teachers guide and assist in student learning through scaffolding. Scaffolding is a term looked at in Vygotsky’s theory, “it is the guidance or structure provided by more competent individuals to help children perform tasks in their zone of proximal development” (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2007, p. 215). A child’s zone of proximal development is range between what students can achieve independently and what they can achieve through problem solving under guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. Therefore students are required to take a certain amount of responsibility for their learning and developing their own meaning. This will also further develop the skills of Initiative and Self-Direction. It is often, the role of the teacher will be taken up by a student, where they are able to share their knowledge; developing leadership skills. Leadership skills are also further developed through social interaction.

For students, communicating to people anywhere in the world can be as simple as press of a button or the click of a mouse. With the number of communication tools already accessible such as phones, MySpace, MSN, Facebook, blogs, wikis and these will continue to expand; students are not developing essential social skills. It therefore becomes a teacher’s role to promote and develop these skills in the classroom and one way to do this is through a constructivist approach. Constructivism emphasises social interaction and that learning is facilitated by social interaction. As students interact “the process of sharing, results in learners refining their own ideas and helping shape the ideas of others” (Eggen & Kauchak, 1997, pp. 274-275). Not only are students learning social skills but they are creating understanding and meaning of what is being taught. Providing students with opportunities for social interaction also allows for oral language development. Many students of today have poor language skills and many do not use proper English. Vygotsky puts Language at the base for all other learning. Vygotsky states that “children’s thought processes are internalized versions of social interactions that are largely verbal in nature” (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2007, p. 224). It is through language which teachers and other adults transmit knowledge to children. Language is also used as an additional device to solve problems and obtain help from others. Constructivism not only allows for further language development but will provide students with opportunities to develop Social and Cross Cultural skills through social interaction. A Constructivist approach to teaching is an effective way to cater for future students. When taking a new teaching approach it is important that teachers make changes to how students are assessed. The assessing tool used should therefore reflect the learning emphasised through constructivism. by Alexis Patriarca Motivation by Adriana Ricci One key learning and teaching theory teachers will need to employ in 2010 and beyond to be effective teachers, is Motivation. Without this, students will not learn effectively. Teachers will be faced with many challenges that they will have to overcome and the degree to whether they succeed in these challenges will determine how effective they are as teachers. Motivating your students will be the biggest challenge. In this changing world, student’s capacity to focus in class and attitudes towards class will be limited due to the other things that will be happening around them. Because motivation in the primary classroom influences test performance and success in school (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010), this be most important for what teachers will be trying to achieve for their students. What students achieve in school will determine part of their future and their career path. An effective teacher will need to find ways to motivate their students to learn and to do well in their study in order to be active participants in life in the years to come. There are four main theories that teachers can base their approaches on. These theories include the Behaviourist Theory, Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories, Sociocultural Theories and the Humanistic Theories (Eggen et al., 2010).

Behaviourist theory of motivation will be crucial for teachers to take on in order to be effective in the year 2010 and beyond. Behaviourism Theory ‘views learning as a change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience’ (Eggen et al., 2010, p. 286). It is this process that teachers will need to apply in order for their students to achieve their goals because if they are not motivated, then they will not learn. An approach teachers can take to do this is by praising or rewarding the student for their efforts in a piece of work (Eggen et al., 2010). This way the student realises that what they have done has been appreciated and makes them feel proud of what they have achieved. This will cause a change in the behaviour of the student and he or she will want to feel this way again, which was highly influenced by the reward or praise by the teacher, and then be motivated to keep up their hard work. This theory impacts greatly in the classroom because in 2010 and beyond students will want to be rewarded or praised for their efforts to realise they are at school for a purpose. The challenge for teachers will be finding what different rewards will work best with each student to changing their behaviours to encouraging them to be motivated. Will students want a small, flat, paper, star sticker, for a reward or will they want a big, 2D sticker that has flashing lights? To be an effective teacher in 2010 and beyond will be the ability to find new ways that will influence their behaviours to change to find satisfaction in school and motivation in wanting to learn.

The Behaviourist Theory will need support from other theories as this cannot be the main one to base your approaches on. As stated by N.E. Perry, ‘Most motivation searches find that purely behaviourist approaches to the study of human learning and motivation unsatisfactory’ (Eggen et al., 2010, p.287). A students behaviour may change to becoming more motivated through experience, however this may not be the case every time as the students’ motivation may be influenced by his belief, for example that he thinks he can not achieve something, or that he can, which would be a cognitive factor (Eggen et al., 2010 p. 287). This then leads into the Cognitive and Social Cognitive Theories of motivation. This theory is based on examining ‘people’s expectations and beliefs and their attempts to understand how the world works’ (Eggen et al., 2010, p. 286). Approaches based on this theory to ensure motivation in students in 2010 and beyond, will be vital for any classroom. Because this theory is based on the main idea that we are naturally motivated to make meaning from our own experiences (Eggen et al., 2010, p. 287), it is critical for teachers to provide opportunities for their students to explore and explain these thoughts and ideas we make to give students the chance to modify them and share them. This will motivate students to learn and make them eager to develop new knowledge and understanding in the changing world. Social Cognitive Theories adds on to the cognitive theory which is based on the idea that observing another persons motivation can influence our own and emphasizes learners’ beliefs and expectations (Eggen et al., 2010, p. 287). In order to be an effective teacher in 2010 and beyond, you as the teacher will need to show motivation in what you are teaching. If you are motivated to teach, your students will be motivated to learn about what you are teaching. Mathematics for example, if you are motivated to teach it, your students will be to learn it. An effective teacher will provide a learning environment or community that will shape the learners beliefs and expectations about learning, if you as the teacher are motivated to teach them. An effective teacher in 2010 and beyond will also base her approaches on the Sociocultural theory to increase motivation in his or her class. Learning in the classroom has steered away from learning individually to a more collaborative learning style. This is the main idea that is based around the Sociocultural view of motivation. The Sociocultural Theory ‘emphasizes individuals participation in communities that value and support learning’ (Eggen et al., 2010, p. 286). It is this view of motivation that suggests through a community of learners in a sufficient learning environment, motivation can be enhanced. Eggen and Kauchak state that ‘this suggests that a learning environment can provide a form of motivation scaffolding that results in learners’ engaging in activities that they would not do on their own’ (Eggen et al., 2010, p. 288). Effective teachers in 2010 and beyond will need to provide learning experiences in a sufficient learning environment. To do this they may do more group learning activities whereby the students work together to help each other learn. It will be the teachers challenge to ensure a positive learning environment and one that is accepting of each other. The last theory of motivation is based on the idea of accepting your students as learners and people. The Humanistic Theory ‘emphasises people’s attempts to fulfil their total potential as human beings’ (Eggen et al., 2010, p. 286). The way this theory impacts on the classroom is that the students are motivated when their teachers show a sincere interest in them as a learner and as a person. For example, a student may be in a gang outside of school, however when teaching that student, the teacher still holds high expectations for that student to achieve their goals and does not judge them. A student will be more eager to learn if his or her teacher accepts them unconditionally. Effective teachers in 2010 and beyond will use this view of motivation to ensure motivation in learning is increased in his or her classroom. Motivation is a key learning and teaching theory that teachers will need to use in order to be effective teachers in 2010 and beyond. It will be the teachers challenge to ensure that he or she can achieve this with her students. Because this is such an important part of students’ learning, an effective teacher will employ all of the approaches above to ensure their students are achieving the best they can and reaching their goals. It is motivation combined with a strict Behaviour Management plan that together will ensure effective teaching in 2010 and beyond. by Ross Lightbody Assessment by Amelia Lovelock Conclusion Teaching can not afford to be like it was traditionally where the teacher is the supplier of knowledge.As for the students of 2010 and beyond, students come well equip will knowledge but have a limited understanding of how to use it. The hardest problem for teachers is finding ways to connect with these students and teach them how to use their skills and knowledge for learning.Effective teaching in the year 2010 and beyond requires teachers to change what their approach is to Motivation,
Classroom Managment and Assessement. One way of doing this may be to
take a Constructivist approach to teaching. Assessment can be defined as all the processes involved in making decisions about students’ learning progress (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 434) Students need to be continually assessed throughout their years in school and so focusing on Assessment for student learning turns assessment into a process designed to support and increase student learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 434). To create effective assessments and so to inturn assess effectively in the years 2010 and beyond a teacher needs to focus numerous elements. For example diagnostic assessment which enables teachers to identify students zone of proximal development and enables them to then provide scaffolding, teachers need to increase motivation to learn, and measure and provide feedback to the student on their learning progress (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 434). Validity and reliability:
Assessments need to be valid and reliable. In being valid the assessments must align with the learning objectives and teachers must not assess elements such as personality or appearance for example not let how messy a students’ hand writing is effect their grade in an essay (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 435). In being reliable assessments must be consistent and free from errors of measurement (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 436). If an assessment is unreliable then it is invalid and vice versa.
Informal and Formal Assessment:
There are two types of assessment to be considered, informal and formal. Informal assessment can be defined as the process of gathering incidental information about learning progress or other aspects of students’ behaviour and making decisions based on that decision (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 437) it can be completed during learning activities for example through observing students at work and assisting them when they need assistance. Even though informal assessments provide that continual flow of how students are achieving they are not very reliable as they provide an incomplete picture of learning furthermore students are unaware of when they are being assessed through informal assessment and so often children will be lazy and not apply their full potential especially if they are not interested in the task. Due to this it is essential that there is formal assessment in the classroom. Formal assessment is the process of systematically gathering the same kind of information from every student (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 440).Formal assessment can be in various forms such as multiple choice a selected-response format, essays a supply format, observing students make a presentation and portfolios (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 441). Students are aware when they are being formally assessed and so they will try their hardest, except of course if they do not know the information and if this is the case teachers must attempt to provide further scaffolding and assistance to help the students fully understand.
Performance assessment:
Performance assessments are considered to be a very effective way of assessing students. They are direct examinations of students’ performance on tasks that are relevant to life outside of school, it is relating the real life to education an important factor in maintaining a students’ interest (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 447). The steps in which a teacher must take when creating this type of assessment are: specify the components you are trying to assess, structure the evaluation setting, balancing realism with safety and other issues, design evaluation procedures with clearly identified criteria (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 447). If a teacher follows these steps it will be guaranteed to be reliable and valid.
Rubrics are a scoring scale that describes criteria for grading. They are important when assessing numerous activities such as performances, presentations, essays. Not only do rubrics help to assess the final product of what the students have completed but they also enable teachers to effectively create assessments that are both valid and reliable (Eggen & Kauchak, 2007, p. 445).

Games for assessment:
Finally with ever increasing technology it will be essential for teachers to incorporate this into assessment in the future for example using video games, this would be a form of informal assessment as games do not separate learning and assessment (Ellis, 2008). However, through games those students who find it hard to focus on writing and listening will find this a lot more interesting and should improve their assessment results (Ellis, 2008).
It is evident that these factors that have been highlighted need to be considering when effectively assessing students in the years of 2010 and beyond. In order for students to learn effectively they need to be assessed in a fair, valid and reliable way and through various forms.
The charge of keeping students consistently motivated in the modern day classroom will relate heavily with whether Teachers can effectively manage student learning. From the 1960’s until 2004, polls indentified classroom management as one of Teachers most challenging problems (Paul Eggen & Don Kauchak, 2010, p. 353), and with the constant development of new technological ‘distractions’ it seems impossible that this task will ever become any easier for Teachers... or will it? The students of today live in an environment where media has become the educator - some web-sites refer to this phenomenon as “infotainment” (21st Century Schools, 2004). Many students feel as though the curriculum is not relevant, and are becoming less engaged in school as a result (21st Century Schools, 2004). A way of remedying this occurrence might be to embrace the ‘current’ technology students thrive upon so much and turn it to an educational use, Alan Haskvitz talks about this very concept in his article titled “Make Twitter an ally in the classroom!” (Alan Haskvitz, 2009). Alan talks about using “Twitter” - a minute-by-minute status update for friends and subscribers alike via the Internet. Where students might use this application for senseless fraternizing, Alan has adopted Twitter in a purely ‘educational’ sense. By posting information regarding assignments and/or relevant unit information via Twitter, Alan can aid his students in close to real-time without having to be nearby. By doing this Alan states that not only are students engaged in the learning process, students also benefit from the personalised learning experience (Haskvitz, 2009). Another potentiality of implementing newer facets of technology into schools could be that it cures any remnants of the 19th century classroom. An upcoming idea for 21st century classrooms is empowering students to manage themselves (Suzie Boss, 2009). If we provide students with the opportunity to direct their own learning and merely guide that construction of knowledge, the opportunities for said students are likely to be much grander. A 19th Century classroom - Image taken from the Ocean Springs Archives References
21st Century Schools. (2004). 21st Century Classroom. Retrieved October 15, 2009, from 21st Century Schools: http://www.21stcenturyschools.com/Designing_21st_Century_Classroom.htm

Boss, S. (2009, February 18). Project Management Keeps Learning on Track. Retrieved October 15, 2009, from Edutopia: http://www.edutopia.org/project-learning-classroom-management

Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational psychology - windows on classrooms. New Jersey: Pearson.

Ellis, K. (Director). (2008). Big Thinkers: James Paul Gee on Grading with Games [Motion Picture].

Haskvitz, A. (2009, May). Make Twitter an Ally in the Classroom! Retrieved October 15, 2009, from Teachers.net: http://teachers.net/gazette/MAY09/haskvitz/

McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2007). Child development and Education 3rd Ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Shelly, G. B., Cashman, T. J., Gunter, R. E., & Gunter, G. A. (2008). Teachers Discovering Computers. Boston: Thomson Course Technology.

A 19th Century Classroom [Image] (n.d.).Retrieved November 28, 2005,
from http://www.oceanspringsarchives.com/19th_century_white_education_at.htm

RM Delta workstation/ desk concept for future classroom [Image] (n.d.).Retrieved October 17, 2009, from http://www.thedesignblog.org/entry/rm-delta-workstation-desk-concept-for-the-classrooms-of-the-future/

Off the Mark [Image] (n.d.).Retrieved October 17, 2009, from http://offthemark.com/search-results/key/written+test/
Created by Joe MacLeod-Iredale, the RM Delta is a workstation/ desk designed especially for connected classrooms of the future. The design basically reinterprets the traditional school desk by having a huge screen tablet PC installed in front to aid the learning process with all the PC components being placed in the scene housing to aid quick upgrade and servicing. An ergonomically designed kneeling chair and keyboard have been developed in collaboration with a physiotherapist to maximum user comfort as well. With Wi-Fi networking keeping every screen online, the teacher can easily monitor the progress of all the students in a particular class via the Delta.
(RM Delta workstation/ desk concept for future classroom [Image] n.d.)
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