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Copy of Engineers & Society (BEE10202)
Transcript of Copy of Engineers & Society (BEE10202)
Regulations, Acts & Engineering Standard
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
NOR AZILA BT ABDULLAH DE120016
CHIAM HUEY CHIANN DE120091
SITI NURLYANA BT HARUN DE120124
HAFIZAH BINTI HARUN DE120148
MUTIA BINTI ANUAR DE120137
NURUL ATIQAH BINTI MOHD YUSUF DE120020
What is Standard?
A standard is a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose.
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide.
International standard give world-class specifications for products, services and systems, to ensure quality, safety and efficiency
3. Symbol- Hazard Symbol
The telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands
Information is encoded by the position of the flags
Example of International Standard
2. Measurement-International System Of Unit
Is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units
The seven base units in the
International System of Units
Recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials, locations, or objects, including electric currents, poisons, and radioactivity
Ionizing Radiation Sign
International Telecommunication Union
ITU is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies
The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards.
The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.
International Organization for Standardization
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent,non-governmental membership organization and the world's largest developer of voluntary International Standards.
System for worldwide standardization is formed by;
International standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Benefits of ISO International Standard
Ensure that products and services are safe, reliable and of good quality.
For business, they are strategic tools that reduce costs by minimizing waste and errors, and increasing productivity.
They help companies to access new markets, level the playing field for developing countries and facilitate free and fair global trade.
Key principles in standard development in ISO
ISO standards respond to a need in the market
ISO standards are based on global expert opinion
ISO standards are developed through a multi-stakeholder process
ISO standards are based on a consensus
International standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
Other international standardization Organisation;
BIPM, CGPM, and CIPM
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures and the related organizations established under the Metre Convention of 1875.
— International Special Committee on Radio Interference
nternational Press Telecommunications Council
— International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
— Formerly known as National Association of Corrosion Engineers
IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission)
Non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
Iec has created an international community that links all nations, international standards organizations that share a common interest in electrical, electronic and related technologies.
The IEC works closely with its international standardization patners to facilities development of international standards:
1). The international organization for standardization (ISO)
2). The international Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Objectives of IEC
Meet the requirements of the global market efficiently
Ensure primacy and maximum world-wide use of its standards and conformity assessment systems
Assess and improve the quality of product and services covered by its standards
Establish the condition for the interoperability of complex system
Increase the efficiency of industrial processes
Contribute to the improvement of human health and safety
Contribute to the protection of the environment
The IEC and electrical energy
The IEC international community of experts has accompanied electrical and electronic developments since the very beginning.
For energy generation those included first hydro and traditional thermal power sources such as coal, gas, and oil; later nuclear was added and today renewable energy from the sun, wind and water.
International standard in Mechanical and Civil Engineering;
ASME for Mechanical
Develops voluntary standards that enhance public safety, health, and quality of life as well as facilitate innovation, trade, and competitiveness.
Process includes a broad public review for all of its standards actions
ASCE for Civil
Standards provide technical guidelines for promoting safety, reliability, productivity, and efficiency in civil engineering.
Program is regularly audited to ensure compliance with the ASCE Rules for Standards Committees and that it is consistent with ANSI requirements.
Several steps to create standard by ASCE
Proposal for New Standards Activity
Propose new or change to existing standard
Propose an amendment to an ASCE Standard
The committee shapes a proposal in to a standard through meetings and ballots.
The volunteers writing standards are experts with knowledge and expertise in the particular field.
: Public Comment
ASCE conducts a minimum 45-day Public Comment period on any new, revised, or reaffirmed standard.
Comments submitted after the close of the public comment period will, at the discretion of the chair, be resolved during the current public comment period or will be considered during the next revision cycle of the standard.
International standards are one way of overcoming technical barriers in international commerce caused by differences among technical regulations and standards developed independently and separately by each nation, national standards organization, or company.
International standards may be used either by direct application or by a process of modifying an international standard to suit local conditions.
The adoption of international standards results in the creation of equivalent, national standards that are substantially the same as international standards in technical content.
WSC is an alliance of the IEC, ISO and ITU top-tier international standardization organizations.
World Standards Cooperation (WSC)
They have established tens of thousands of standards covering almost every conceivable topic. Many of these are then adopted worldwide replacing various incompatible "homegrown" standards.
Many of these standards are naturally evolved from those designed in-house within an industry, or by a particular country, while others have been built from scratch by groups of experts who sit on various technical committees (TCs).
IEEE is a professional association which performs its standards making and maintaining functions through the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA).
IEEE-SA is an organization within IEEE that develops global standards in a broad range of industries, including: power and energy, biomedical and health care, information technology and robotics, telecommunication and home automation, transportation, nanotechnology, information assurance, and many more.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
The IEEE standards development process can be broken down into seven basic steps:
Requesting Project Authorization
Assembling a Working Group
Drafting the Standard
International Standard on Quality Control (ISQC)
for Firms that Perform Audits and Reviews of Historical Financial Information, and Other Assurance and Related Services Engagements which sets out the application and authority of ISQCs.
Purpose of (ISQC):
to establish standards and provide guidance regarding a firm’s responsibilities for its system of quality control for audits and reviews of historical financial information, and for other assurance and related services engagements.
International standard is important for giving world class specification for products, services, systems. All these are to ensure quality, safety and efficiency of the products.