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SIOP Chapter 10
Transcript of SIOP Chapter 10
and Special Education
for English Learners.
Issues of Reading Development and Assessment
"Teachers must find ways to help their students learn to read and write in English at the same time they are learning to speak and understand the language."
Special Education Services
When are they appropriate?
Issues of Reading Development & Special Education for English Learners
Strategies to Improve ELLs' Oral Proficiency
In addition to other accommodations, we should work on ELLs' oral proficiency in English:
• Picture Walks- Students describe pictures and predict outcomes
• Repeated Readings- Student orally repeat rhymes and rhythms
• Tape Record Stories- Students draw as they listen and retell content
• Language Expression Approach-Students write their own stories/read them
Explicit instruction in difference between L1 and L2.
Still not successful?
• Refer to Reading Specialist or Special Education Referral
Reading Assessments for ELLs
Adjustments need to be made to traditional reading assessments for ELLs because they generally do not take into account their literacy abilities in their primary language.
Teachers need to recognize language difficulties:
• - Phonology may be different: consonant/vowel sounds may not exist in L1
• - Spelling may cause problems
• - Spanish is transparent (easy to decode), English is deep (less direct)
If students have no reading problems in L1, they will generally have no reading problems in L2.
Consequently, we need to:
• - Determine if child is a fluent reader in native language*
• - Accommodate if not
*HOWEVER, even if a student is a fluent reader in their native language, we need to explicitly teach them English
The referral process
For English Learners:
Low English language proficiency, gaps in educational experience, and cultural differences influence the referral process
Teachers have a tremendous impact on the process
"Research indicates that two factors influence referral: (1) teacher tolerance and (2) the interaction of perceived student ability or behavior with the teacher's own expectations and approach to instruction and classroom management"
Assisting Struggling Learners
All students should be screened for potential reading problems; as a result, early interventions may reduce future problems
Training: (better training)- Training should address issues of diversity, second language acquisition, culturally relevant instruction methods
Search for interventions rather than disabilities
RtI (Response to intervention) -three tiered delivery system
TIER 1: Students should receive high quality instruction; SIOP instruction
TIER 2: More intensive interventions
primary language support
small group/individualized instruction
reading specialist services
TIER 3: Special education services
Teaching strategies for students with Special Needs
Limit clutter & excessive visual stimuli
Repetition is essential
Allow extra time for processing information
Scaffold assessments to measure understanding
Adapt curriculum to students’ needs (# required completed items or items in general)
Issues Related to Special Education
Approximately 80% of referrals to special education are due to reading problems.
Majority of referrals to special education are of minority students from low socioeconomic backgrounds.
Exhaust every option before considering referring an English learner for special education.
Underachievement in minority youth due to…
Effects of poverty (food, issues at home more important).
Low expectations from the teacher.
Poor study habits
Poor time management
Cultural difference in students’ & teachers behavioral expectations
“Good” instruction vs. quality of instruction
- Explain how linguistic differences between L1 and L2 can affect ELLs' reading and writing development.
- Understand issues with Special Education and ELL students and learn in-class supports to help ELLs and struggling readers.
- Describe the three tiers of Response to Intervention (RTI) and how they can be used to supplement learning.
Carrie, Amalia, Heather, and Kristen