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Mentoring and Coaching

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Mada AlSuwaidi

on 22 September 2012

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Transcript of Mentoring and Coaching

So, I met with my mentor every two weeks just talk and exchange thoughts. I can say that at times, it felt great to get things out of my mind and hear the opinion of a person who will keep our coversations confidential. I always thought of a coach as a form of instructor.
When I was in High School, I was in a sports team, and the coach would guide and advise the team on how to imporve and perform better.

So, a coach is a person who is employed to guide a person or a team to perform better. My Thoughts on Mentoring... My Thoughts on Coaching... My definition of a mentor:
A mentor is an experienced person who acts as a role model for
mentees, provides support, feedback, and direction about goals relating to career or life. A mentor does not control the conversation, but allows the mentee to express his/her thoughts freely. Mentoring
Defined "Mentoring is an intervention aimed at creating or facilitating a supportive relationship with a significant other and is largely based on social exchange theory" (Corney and Plessis 2010, p.2). Mentoring In addition, the previous university I was in had a Writing Coach. The Writing Coach was responsible for proof reading students paper for gramatical errors Coaching
Defined Passmore (2010) explains that coaching requires listening, questionning, understanding and encouraging, in order to work effectively.

For instance, a coach is required to listen to the coachee and clarify certain points in order to fully understand the coachee's problems and ambitions. It is also important for a coach to support and encourage a coachee and drive the coachee towards success. Coaching This definition suggests that mentoring is a form of social interaction, in which knowledge and support is exchanged between mentors and mentees. For example, my class mentor supports
me on structuring my assignment and defining my topic, thus forming a relationship that is based on exchange of ideas and feedback I say coaching is about assisting individuals to accomplish their targets. The coachee should increase the confidence, the will, and the determination of the coachee (Hardingham et al 2004), this way effective coaching is acheived. The Coach
A coach will have a different role depeindg on the context of the coaching session. I will be explaining three types of roles in this presentation (Hardingham et al 2004). Coach as sounding board: An individual usually seeks a coach when he/she sees the need for change in his/her life. This individual needs the coach to reflect on his/her goals often through hearing the responses and ideas of the coach regarding the coachees ambitions. In this case, the coach will be a qualified person who has exceptionally well listening skills and is able to give appropriate advise. A coach acts as a sounding board when the coach tries to understand and be immersed in the coachees situation and offers suggestions accordingly (Downey 2003). 1 2 Coach as conscince: This involves paying attention to particular things such as checking back with coachees to make sure he/she is in the right track. Coaches in this case act like a policeman to make sure that the coachees' life and work are balanced (Downey 2003). 2 3 Coaching is understood differently by different people depending on their background and experience. Downey (2003) claims that coaching occurs all the time; therefore, anyone can be a coach because people always communicate with eachother Coach as challenger: This role requires the coach to challege the coachees thinking. For instance, a coach would help the coachee to identify areas that the coachee did not realize or think about before (Downey 2003). On the other hand, Hargreaves and Dawe (1990) state that "coaching is a method of transferring skills of expertise from more experienced and knowledgeable practitioners of such skill to less experienced ones" I agree with both interpretations of coaching because coaches can be people who interact with individuals on a daily basis such as parents, friends and family. While other coaches can be professionals. The context of the situation is what determines the type of coaching necessary. Hudson (1999) suggests
3 charastaristics of good coaches Effective communicators Change facilitators Generalists: have many
experiences Things coaches DONT do Control coversations
Compare coachees with others
Solve previous problems or impossible problems
"Impose pre-arrange agenda" (Hudson 1999). Good coaches are able to draw and provide many examples from past experiences to motivate and support coachees. Eight Stages to Develop
a Coaching and Coachee
Relationship (Adapted from Hudson 1999) 1: Establish the relationship The first stage is created to build
trust between coach and coachee and
to understand the relevant issues of
the coachee 2: Formulate Agreement The second stage refers to understanding
different requirements, procedures, and rules around the coaching sessions in order to understand expectations of coach and coachee and recognize boundaries 3: Focus on Vision Rather
than Problem The third stage allows for coachees to set
goals for the future elimating negative
experiences that can arrise. The shift occurs
from focusing on the problem to focusing
on the solution and the bright future 4: Change Process Stage four refers to developing a strategic
plan to acheive goals. This way, the coachee
is aware of the necessary actions it takes to
accomplish aims. 5: Resisting Resistance The fifth stage refers to overcoming
difficulties and relying on the coach for
support to move forward 6: Challenge and Solution Stage six includes careful thinking and
brainstoriming of ideas and new ways
of overcoming difficulties and finding
solutions 7: Assessment of Progress Stage seven ivolves reviewing and assesing
the strategic plans and making
amendements as required. 8: Recognize success Stage eight allows for coach and coachee
to celebrate acheivement and recognize
accomplishments. Rhodes et al (2004) outline basic mentoring activities as follows:

1)Mentors assist mentees in their personal development: Mentors and mentees create a development plan in which the focus of the mentoring sessions will revolve around. The mentor should be sensitive and supportive towards the mentee and allow the mentee to develop self-awareness. Mentors are a source of support in this case. R
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3)Assist in Evaluation: Mentors provide mentees with positive feedback and help mentees to identify areas of improvement and identify achievements. Evaluation against a performance standard may be applicable in which mentees performance can be compared to professional standards. 2)Mentors encourage mentees to manage their own learning: Mentors have many experiences, and motivate mentees to have new perspectives about things. Mentors allow mentees to learn from their experiences and allow mentees to have more confidence in themselves. Mentor Mentee If someone asks me what I think mentoring is, I would say that mentoring is a form of interaction between people in which a certain topic is discussed. For instance, a mentor and a mentee can communicate and exchange experiences about "Life". I was able to discuss life issues such as dealing with friends, school work, relationships, and family Isnt Life just complicated? What about a teenagers life? Wow, when I was a teenager I felt that my Life was scattered into a million jigsaw pieces, and I needed someone to talk to, to help me place all my life issues into one BIG jigsaw piece But, what teenage girl wants to discuss her life with her mother??? Instead, my mother assigned me to one of her firends and said that her friend will act like a mentor to me and will be available to hear me out and offer advise when needed. After that my Life jigsaws went from All over the place To one Happy Jigsaw I have taken a Life Skills Course last year, and the Life Coach duty was to advise the group on how to manage certain life issues. The coach would offer advise on sevaral topics and inform the group of the best ways to overcome life difficulties. Stress Management Budgeting Peer Pressure Time Management Confrontation Managing Relationships Career Choosing A coach to me, can be a
person who is an
expert in the field
and is employed to educate
and guide individuals
to reach a certain
goal. The coach facilitates the sessions. Coaching involves the "use of silence, questions, and challenege to assist a coachee towards a defined work-based target. These are often present issues or ones that relate to the future" (Mcleod 2003, p.9). This quote suggest that coaching is a process
with a fixed purpose and involves the use of great communication to understand the goals of the coachee However, I beleive that Mcleod's definition does not clearly explain what coaching is. I prefer the definition of Downey (2003) "Coaching is the art of facilitating the performance, learning, and development of another" (p.21). Goal(s) Obstacle(s) Finish Point In addition, good coaches provide new perspectives to looking at thnigs THE PATH TO MENTORING UNDERSTANDING AND COACHING Overview Mentorting Coaching So, What is the difference between mentoring and coaching? So, why are
mentoring and
coaching used? Mentoring and coaching are widely used professionally in organizations. In order for mentoring and coaching work effectively, a collaborative work environment is necessary. Organizations that do not offer a mentoring or coaching program often have employees who face problems such as lack of goals and objectives, lack of motivation, lack of creativity, and lack of job satisfaction (Rhodes et al 2004). I believe that individuals who have access to mentors or coaches will generally be more satisfied with their work or life because they have a positive influence in their life. Mentors and coaches are able to drive individuals towards success by communicating with them about problems and ambitions. Authors such as Barak and Hasin (2010) specify that effective mentoring practices focus on interpersonal interactions, development of knowledge, and focus on a specific area of expertise. An effective mentor should be an expert in the subject matter and can therefore represent problems and solutions accurately. Coaching: is employed for a short period of time to increase awareness in individuals. Furthermore, coaching includes the setting of certain goals and the attemp to acheive those goals within the coaching period. Coaching is usually related to improved performance and aims to getting the coachee from point A to B without sharing knowledge and experience. Coaching is generally a non-directive approach.


Mentoring: is a long term relationship usually by a professional aimed at shaping the values and beleifs of individuals and does not focus on one specific issue. Mentoring involves the sharing of experience and knowledge and is more directive than coaching Summary of what mentoring and coaching are While the process of mentoring and coaching may be similar, mentoring and coaching differ by the relationship with clients and the difference in the qualification of mentors and coaches Mentoring usually lasts for a longer period of time than coaching and involves an ongoing relationship
Mentoring sessions are usually informal and take place when the mentee seeks advise and support
Mentoring allows for the greater understanding of the mentee and his/her experiences
A mentor is usually a more experienced and qualified person than the mentee and is familiar about the context
A mentor passes information, experience, and knowledge to the mentee
A mentoring topic of discussion is usually set by the mentee
A mentors main role is to provide support for the mentee Coaching usually last for a shorter period of time compared to mentoring
Coaching sessions are generally more formal and scheduled regularly
A coaching session is usually focused on a specified topic or issue unlike mentoring that can be about differet topics
Coaching does not have to be performed by an expert unlike mentoring which requires a professional
Coaching is focused on accomplishig immediate goals
A coach's main role is to assist in the professional or personal development of the coachee Starcevich (2009) summarizes the differences
between mentoring and coaching as follows: Mentor Coach Focus Role Relationship Source of Influence Arena Individual Performance No specified agenda Specified agenda Self selected Perceived value Position Life Task related Comes with the job Basically, mentoring is focused on the
needs of the mentee, it is not related
to one specific topic, the relationship is
informal, and is focused on Life issues
and allows for learning to occur. I believe that Starcevich's
summary is very accurate
and well defined as it clarifies the
small differences between mentoring
and coaching. Conversly, coaching is focused on
performance, and the topic is usually
fixed and related to a certain task. The
relationship between the coach and
coachee is more formal and usually
related to organizational/professional
aims. I believe that mentors and coaches should be transparent, open to new ideas, good communicators, strive for personal growth, and encourage development and change. In my opinion both mentors and coaches are leaders in a sense that they have leader like qualities such as inspiration and motivation of followers, focus on a specific target and focus on accomplishments. Mentoring sessions might be related to these areas Source: http://www.examiner.com/wellness-in-new-york/life-coach-coaches-self-to-quit-life-coaching-parody Source:http://www.wipp.nhs.uk/tools_gpn/unit4_gpn.php Moreover, the diagram below displays what a
mentor does for a mentee during the session. This diagram outlines
that a mentor acts as a
reflector for mentees
and reflects their
actions and choices.
Mentors motivate
mentees and explore
choices based on
mentees strengths
and weaknesses.
Furthermore, mentors
challenge mentees
to solve issues using
new and different
methods Based on my readings, I understand that the characteristics of coaching are as follows:

Coaching is focused on development, perhaps of skills, and increased performance
Coaching is time-bound and short-term
Coaching is used for both personal and organizational goals
Coaching is aimed at specific topics and issues
Coaching provides coachees with feedback on their strengths and weaknesses
Coaching can de done on a one-to-one basis or in a team
Coaching inspires coachees to be effective
Coaching models future outcomes for coachees and allows them to see what the future will be like depending on their actions
Coaches guide coachees towards the safe and right path
Coaches questions coachees to enable them to see things differently
Coaches critisize coachees
Coaches encourage and motivate coachees
Coaches provides new ways of looking at things and dealing with problems and issues In organizations, coaches can be employed internally or externally (McLeod 2003). Empolying external
coaches benifits Objectivity: external
coaches cannot be influenced by individuals or have biased views if they do not know the coachees Balance: external coaches can
balance between the needs of the organization and the needs of individuals without comprimizing the overall aims of the business Trust: coachees would be able to
trust external coaches fatser as they
will not feel that their job is at risk by
having someone internal evaluate them Employing external
coaches weaknesses Cost: The cost of
employing a coach
outside an organization
would be high as it will
be private hire Lack of flexibility: Time
flexibility would be an
issue as the coaching session would depend on the schedule of the external coach. This way, valuable time could be wasted. There are 4 phases of mentoring relationships.

1) Initiation: This is when mentor meets mentee and begin to establish relationship by learning about one another and identifying learning styles and working habits.

2) Cultivation: This is when knowledge and experience are shared between mentor and mentee and loyalty and trust is established.

3) Separation: This is when mentor and mentee separate and the relationship ends.

4) Redefinition: This is when the relationship between mentor and mentee becomes a peer friendship. This phase exists because research has shown its creation after the end of a mentoring relationship.
(Kram 1983, cited in Scandura 1998) I understand that mentoring involves the support of mentors to maximize the potential of mentees. Mentoring is a tool used to empower mentees to fulfill their aims and duties. A mentor acts as a guide who has experience and leads mentees to the right path Formal mentoring Informal Mentoring Mentoring can be formal or informal Formal mentoring generally is formed based on an expectation with clear goals
Formal mentoring can sometimes be interpreted as a threat or force by some mentees. This example can be seen in organizations in which employees are told to take mentoring sessions and fear loss of job
Formal mentoring usually ends faster than informal mentoring
Trust can be harder to gain in informal mentoring as trust takes time to develop (Lynn 1998). Informal mentoring has no clear expectations and goals can arise anytime during sessions
Informal mentoring usually is sef selected
Informal mentoring lasts longer than formal mentoring
Informal mentoring usually is not a result of intervention by organizations (Lynn 1998). Phillip-Jones (1983) states that most mentoring relationships are informal
denoting that the relationship is developed
over common interest, needs, and values. I agree with Phillip-Jones and believe that informal mentoring is more successful than formal mentoring because the relationship is easier to build and thoughts are easily shared between mentor and mentee thus making discussions authentic Furthermore, formal mentoring
is usually assigned; therefore, conflicts can arise, and mentees'commitment might not be strong as he/she may feel that the mentoting is imposed However, successful formal mentoring can occur in employee socialization activities, training, and professional development (Phillip-Jones 1983). This is because mentees can gain interpersonal benefits and gain some information and past experience relating to the job. This example can be
seen in schools, in which new teachers are assigned mentors for support. Although it is a formal mentoring relationship, teachers will benefit from an experienced mentor who can give examples from previous experience and help the teacher develop and imporove teaching. This youtube video summarizes
what coaching is, what coaches can
do for coachees, and how change can happen from communicating with someone about personal things and feeling safe at the same time. I really enjoyed watching this video because it is created in an interesting way and can be understood easily. Empolying internal
coaches benefits Know the business: "internal coaches have the advantage of already understanding the organization’s business issues and internal dynamics" (Hallam n.d). Respect: Internal coaches can
gain the respect of executives fast because the executive will already be familiar with the coach's strengths and knowledge Employing internal
coaches weaknesses Lack of experience: "internal coaches usually have less coaching and feedback experience than external coaches, with fewer opportunities to practice and maintain their coaching skills" (Hallam n.d). Authority issues: Internal coaches might be hesitant to confront the coachee about certain issues as fear of job security. Conversly, if the coach is at a lower position then the coachee might not take the feedback of the coach seriously (Hallam n.d). Why are internal
coaches employed? Why are external
coaches employed? Financial reasons: An internal coach would cost less than an ecternal coach Time: Internal coaches have the advantage of quickly identifying opportunities and weaknesses since they are familiar with the organization. Moreover, internal coaches will not need time travelling to and from the organization External coaches can provide a deeper and broader experience and understanding from outside the organization External coaches do not have past relationships
with coachees and therefore the relationship will
not be affected because of the coaching What is the relationship
between mentoring and coaching? "Coaching is a key skill of a mentor and an effective mentor will have well-developed coaching skills" (Oystercorp n.d).


I like this quote because it shows that mentoring and coaching interchange and mentors will need to have good coaching skills in order to perform effectively.
Basically, mentors and coaches have similar skills, but a clear way of understanding the relationship is to remember that a mentor is a person who a mentee can learn from (experience) and a coach is a person who a coachee can learn with (support). I think this picture explains that
the ultimate goal of an individual
is to achieve success which is the point
in the middle. Coaches and mentors
have similar charastaristics and activities
that overlap. I think the relationship
between them is very strong, but varies
depending on the context. http://www.thegreenfield.co.uk/what-we-do/business-mentoring-and-coaching Mentoring and coaching can be directive or non-directive Directive Non-directive Mentor/coach are the
experts and tell people
what to do

Mentor/coach provide
advise and directon

Mentor/coach are like instructors Mentor/coach are not
necessarily experts in the
field

Mentor/coach act as guides


Mentor/coach are supporters I believe that this figure outlines
my understanding that coaching is
generally non-directive because a coach's
main duty is to help and assist coachees to
develop and this approach does not require
command. On the other hand, mentoring is
somewhat directive because mentees are
experts and have knowledge, therefore, can
share their thoughts with mentees and offer advise and suggestions on how to do things http://blog.flashpointhr.com/management-leadership/recognize-the-difference-between-mentoring-and-coaching-and-know-when-each-is-most-appropriate/ What I think the advantages of a directive approach are: Coachee or mentee can benefit from the experience of others
Coachee or mentee can be provided with a solution to their problem quickly
Mentor or coach may feel good about sharing their knowledge with others and telling them what they think they should do What I think the disadvantages of a directive approach are: Mentee or coachee will have less control over results
Mentee or coachee might not be motivated to perform better if they are told what to do
Mentor or coach might not provide the best actions as they are not 100% aware of the experiences of mentees/coachees What I think the advantages of a non-directive approach are: Mentor and coachee do not have to be experts, therefore, might be easier/affordable to employ

Mentee and coachee are in control of their own actions and therefore can be more motivated What I think the disadvantages of a non-directive approach are: It might take a long time to acheive results as mentee/coachee have to do the thinking themselves

Mentee/coachee might not have the opportunity to hear an experts opinion Downey's definition clearly states that coaching
aims at enhancing and developing performance
with an opportunity of learning from one another. I think this definition explains the basic premise behind coaching



McLeod, A. (2003) Performance Coaching: The Handbook for Managers, H.R. Professionals and Coaches. Wales: Crown House Publishing. Book

Oystercorp. (n.d) What’s the Difference between Mentoring and Coaching? [online]. (URL www.oystercorp.com/assets/pdf/newsletter.pdf) (Accessed February 22, 2012).

Passmore, J. (2010) Excellence in Coaching: The Industry Guide. 2nd ed. London: Kogan Page.

Phillip-Jones, L. (1983) ‘Establishing a formalized mentoring program’. Training & Development Journal. 37(2), pp. 38-42.

Rhodes, C., Stokes, M., and Hampton, G. (2004) A Practical Guide to Mentoring, Coaching, and Peer-networking: teacher Professional Development in Schools and Colleges. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Scandura, T. (1998) ‘Dysfunctional mentoring relationships and outcomes’. Journal of Management, 24(3) pp. 449-476.

Starcevich, M. (2009) Coach, Mentor: Is there a difference? [online]. (URL http://www.coachingandmentoring.com/Articles/mentoring.html) CEO Center For Coaching & Mentoring. (Accessed 18 February 2012). Barak.L., and Hasin, R. (2010) ‘Exemplary mentors perspectives towards mentoring across mentoring contexts: Lessons from collective case studies’. Teaching and Teacher Education 26(3) pp. 427–437

Corney, T and Plessis, K. (2010) ‘Apprentices mentoring relationships: The role of significant others and supportive relationships across the work–life domains’. Youth Studies Australia. 29(3). pp 18-26.

Downy, M. (2003) Effective Coaching: Lessons From the Coach’s Coach. USA: Thomson.

Hallam, G. (n.d). Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Coaching. [online]. (URL www.creativemetrics.com/.../advantages-and-disadvantages-of-intern...). (Accessed February 22, 2012).

Hardingham, A., Brearley, M., Moorhouse, A., and Venter, B. (2004) The coach’s Coach: Personal Development for Personal Developers. London: CIPD.

Hargreaves, A., and Dawe, R. (1990) ‘Paths of professional development: Contrived collegiality, collaborative culture and the case of peer coaching’. Teaching & Teacher Education. 6(3) pp. 227-241 Hudson, F. (1999) The Handbook of Coaching. USA: Jossey-Bass http://www.brefigroup.co.uk/coaching/coaching_and_mentoring.html Lynn, B. (1998) Mentoring Programs: Is there a Difference in Formal vs. Informal? [online]. (URL http://www.lynnleadership.com/mentoring_article.htm ) (Accessed 21 February 2012). My thoughts on mentoring
My definition of a mentor
Mentoring defined
Formal and informal mentoring
Basic mentoring activities
Phases of mentoring relationships
My thoughts on coaching
Coaching defined
Charastaristics of coaching
Internal and external coaches
Developing a coaching relationship
Directive and non-directive approaches
Differences between mentoring and coaching
Relationship between mentoring and coaching
Summary
Reference By: Mada AlSuwaidi
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