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Chapter 6

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LesLeigh Conway

on 5 February 2018

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Transcript of Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Four Forms of Human Diversity:
Sexual Orientation
We must ADAPT to different cultures...so what is culture?
"Culture is a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that is shared by a group of people and shaped from one generation to the next."
Chapter Preview:
What are the 4 forms of diversity?
What is culture?
What is intercultural communication?
How does culture influence communication?
What are the stages of intercultural competence?
Adapting to Others: Diversity & Communication
How does gender influence communication?
Masculine men tend to communicate from an instrumental orientation; "me against the world" view of self and reality.
Feminine women tend to communicate from an expression orientation; connecting with others and constructing relationships and community.
Androgynous individuals tend to communicate from high levels of both instrumental and expressive orientations.
How does gender influence communication?
Women (who are feminine) tend to engage in Rapport Talk:
Communicate to connect with others.
Focus more on the quality of relationships than on the information exchange.
Men (who are masculine) tend to engage in Report Talk:
Communicate to create or establish status.
Focus more on information exchange than on the quality of relationships.

--Deborah Tannen
What is Intercultural Communication?
"Intercultural Communication occurs when individuals or groups from different cultures (or co-cultures) communicate"
How does culture influence communication?
Our culture and life experiences determine our "world view" - the lens through which people in a given culture perceive the world around them.
How does culture influence communication?
High Context Cultures
Rely more explicitly on nonverbal messages
Communicators rely on the context to interpret messages
Low Context Cultures
Rely more explicitly on verbal messages (language)
Communicators use fewer contextual cues to interpret information
Culture Determines what We Value and Cultural Values Impact our Communication
Decentralized and Centralized Power
Individualism and Collectivism
Uncertainty and Certainty
Masculine and Feminine Perspectives
Long-term and Short-term Time Orientation
Decentralized & Centralized Power
Decentralized Power Cultural Value
Leadership is not vested in one person; power is distributed among the people
Decisions are likely to be made by consensus
Centralized Power Cultural Values
Militaristic approach to power
Prefer strongly organized, central form of government
Individualism & Collectivism
Individualistic Cultural Values
Individual Recognition
Tend to be loosely knit socially
Collectivistic Cultural Values
Group achievement is rewarded.
Strive to accomplish goals for the benefit of the group
Uncertainty & Certainty
Uncertainty Cultural Values
Tolerance for ambiguity
Relaxed and informal expectations for others
Certainty Cultural Values
Develop and enforce rigid rules for behavior
Establish elaborate codes of conduct
Masculine & Feminine
Masculine Cultural Value
A culture that values achievement, assertiveness, heroism, and traditional male and female roles.
Feminine Cultural Value
Emphasize building relationships and seeking peace and harmony with others.
Long-Term VS. Short-Term Time Orientations
Long-Term Orientation
Value Perseverance and Thriftiness
Short-Term Orientation
Past and Present-Oriented
Respecting Tradition
Preserving "Face"
Barriers to Bridging Differences and Adapting to Others
Assuming Superiority
Assuming Similarity
Assuming Differences
Stereotyping and Prejudice
The Stages of Intercultural Competence:
From Least to Most Competent
Stage 1: Denial
Stage 2: Defense
Stage 3: Minimization
Stage 4: Acceptance
Stage 5: Adaptation
Stage 6: Integration
Full transcript