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Positive Organisational Behaviour

Positive Psychology
by

Steve Pitman

on 5 November 2015

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Transcript of Positive Organisational Behaviour

Reaction to the ‘exclusive focus in
psychology on pathology, negative
aspects of human beings & a preoccupation
with the ‘worst things in life’ (Seligman, 2002).
Outline

• What is Positive Psychology?
• What is Positive Organisational Behaviour?
• Work Engagement & Burnout
• Stress & Demands
• Psychological Capital
Outline

• What is Positive Psychology?
• What is Positive Organisational Behaviour?
• Work Engagement & Burnout
• Stress & Demands
• Psychological Capital
What is Positive Psychology?
A relatively new field in psychology.
Promotes qualities such as well-being,
quality of life, satisfaction, optimism and happiness (Seligman & Csikszentmihayi, 2000)
What is Positive Organisational Behaviour?
Work Engagement & Burnout
Psychological Capital
“A syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional and self efficacy that can occur among individuals that work with people”.

Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter (2001).
Three Components:

Emotional Exhaustion
Depersonalisation (Cynicism)
Reduced Personal Accomplishment
Employee characteristics that relate to person job fit, include;

Having a sustained workload
Having a feeling of choice & control
Feelings they receive appropriate recognition & reward.
Believing they have social support available to them in the workplace.
Perceive organisation to be fair & just.
Find work to be meaningful.
Work Engagement
‘a positive, fulfilling work related state of mind that is characterised by vigor, dedication and absorption’ (Schaufeli, et al, 2002: 72)
Vigor

Willingness to invest effort in one’s work, persistence in the face of difficulty, and high levels of energy and mental resilience while working`.
Dedication

Characterised by a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge. Related to strong work involvement and identification with separating oneself from work.
Absorption

Characterised by the ability to concentrate and become engrossed in work, where time appears to pass quickly and it becomes difficult to detach from work.
Work Engagement Measures
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)

17 item scale - originally 24 items (Schaufeli et al, 2006). vigor - 6 items, dedication - 5 items & absorption - 6 items
Short version – (Schaufeli, Bakker & Salanova, 2006)
Student version (UWES-S) – (Schaufeli et al, 2002)
Seven point rating scale – 0 (never) to 6 (every day)
Validated – factorial analysis and SEM

www.schaufeli.com
Work Engagement Measures
Gallup 12 (Q12) (Buckingham and Coffman, 1999)

12 item questionnaire
5 point rating scale
Higher the score the more engaged the employee –low turnover, higher growth, better productivity, better customer loyalty.
No published details of its psychometric properties.
Not adapted for use in different organisational cultures.
Not commonly used in academia (Freeney & Tiernan, 2006)
Psychological Capital

who you are’ and ‘what you will become’ the psychological self. ‘developing ones actual self to become the possible self
Capital

Financial Capital
Social Capital
Human Capital
Psychological Capital
Financial Capital

The removal of resources from consumption so they
can be invested for future anticipated returns
Social capital
Concerned with social networks, relationships,
connections or ‘who you know
Human Capital

Skills & knowledge that underpin an individual’s abilities to perform a role or function or ‘what we know’.
Psychological Capital
‘who you are’ and ‘what you will become’ the psychological self.
‘developing ones actual self to become the possible self.
Synergy between social, human & PsyCap.
PsyCap has the greatest individual impact

Luthans, Avey, Clapp-Smith et al (2008)
Conclusion
test
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FBxfd7DL3E
http://books.google.com/ngrams
Over learning
Yerkes Dodson
Resulted from a Paradigm shift.



- Positive Psychology
4 Categories

Basic Needs – two questions
Management Support – four questions
Teamwork – four questions
Growth – two questions

Engaged - Not Engaged-Actively Disengeged
Engaged 28%
Not Engaged 54%
Disengaged 17%
Gallup 2005
Demerouti Bakker, Nachreiner, Schaufeli (2001)
http://www.explania.com/en/channels/work/detail/how-to-use-employee-engagement-to-boost-your-business
12 Phases of Burnout

1. The Compulsion to Prove Oneself
2. Working Harder
3. Neglecting Their Needs
4. Displacement of Conflicts
5. Revision of Values
6. Denial of Emerging Problems
7. Withdrawal
8. Obvious Behavioural Changes
9. Depersonalization
10. Inner Emptiness
11. Depression
12. Burnout Syndrome

Freudenberger & North (1992)
CREW
Civility, Respect & Engagement @ Work
Michael Leiter
Stress - Demands & Resources
Full transcript