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Creating A Nation

1763-1791
by

Peter Jones

on 19 April 2010

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Transcript of Creating A Nation

Creating A Nation Taxation Without Representation Britain wins the French and Indian War
Britain gets a lot of land in North America
The land in N. America was not uninhabited
It was home to over 500,000 Native Americans
Problems over the use of this land led to a series of Native American raids on the British forts and villages along the western frontier
Britain tried to solve these hard times with the Natives
Britain created more problems with the colonies in attempting to solve difficulties Relations With Britain Britain took two measures to stop the problems with the Native Americans
First, they planned to put 10,000 soldiers in the colonies and on the frontier
Then, in the proclamation of 1763, they did not allow colonists to travel west from the Appalachian Mountains into the Native American Territory
In 1763 most of the colonists were satisfied with the government in London
Few wanted major changes in their relationship with the king or Parliament
These measures alerted the colonists
The financial problems of Great Britain complicated the situation even more
The British had a debt to pay from the French And Indian War
So they began to make plans to tax the colonists Britain's Trade Laws In 1764, George Grenville, the British finance minister, decided the American colonists should contribute more toward the British expenses
Grenville's first step was to take action against smuggling in the colonies
Smuggling to avoid import taxes meant lost revenue
Britain wanted to monitor colonial trading more closely
So to catch colonists smuggling, Grenville let the customs officers to get general writs of assistance
These allowed officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
Lots of colonists considered Grenville's actions as an outrageous abuse of power
Grenville then turned his attention to tax revenue
In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act which lowered taxes on mollasses imported by the colonists
Parliament also established special courts to hear smuggling cases
In these courts, British-appointed judges could decide wether a smuggler was sent to jail or not British Territory The Stamp Act In 1765, Parliament passed another law in an attempt to to raise money for Britain
The Stamp Act placed a tax on almost all printed material
All printed material had to have a stamp on it, which was applied by British colonial officials
Opposition on the Stamp Act focused on two points
Parliament had interfered in colonial affairs by taxing the colonies directly
It also taxed the colonists without their consent
Parliament ignored the colonial tradition of self-government by passing the Stamp Act without consulting the colonial legislatures Protesting The Stamp Act Patrick Henry persuaded the House of Burgesses to take action against the Stamp Act
The Virginia assembly passed a resolution declaring it had "the only and sole exclusive right and power to lay taxes on its citizens"
Samuel Adams helped start an organization called the Sons of Liberty
The Sons of Liberty went up and down the streets protesting against the Stamp Act
In the summer of 1765, the protesters burned effigies representing unpopular tax collectors
In the colonial cities, people urged merchants to boycott British and European goods
A lot of merchants, artisans, and farmers signed nonimportations which pledge not to import or use goods imported from Great Britain New Taxes Charles Townshend, a new British finance minister, made yet another attempt to raise money without a crisis
Parliament passed another set of laws in 1767 called the Townshend Acts
These applied to imported goods only, with the tax being paid at the port of entry
The taxed goods were glass, paper, tea, and lead and the colonists had to import them because they did not produce them
The colonists believed that only their own representatives had the right to tax them
Some of the colonial women formed an organization just as the men did
This organization was called the Daughters of liberty
They believed the Americans could become economically independant by urging Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce their own goods Trouble in Boston On October 1,1768, a fleet of British ships sailed into Boston Harbor
700 soldiers in red uniform filed out
March 5, 1770, the Boston Massacre began
Crispus Attucks was an African American dockworker that died the night of the Boston Massacre
Colonial leaders called the killings propaganda against the British
In 1772, Samuel Adams revived the Boston commitee of correspondance, an organization that was used in the past A Crisis Over Tea Parliament passed the tea act in 1773 which gave the company the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying the taxes colonial tea merchants had to pay
Because of this act, on December 16,1773, a group of men disguised as mohawks and armed with hatchets boarded the ships and threw 342 chests of tea overboard
This was called the Boston Tea Party The Intolerable Acts When news of the Boston Tea Party reached London, King George III thought that Britain was losing control of the colonies
In the spring of 1774, Parliament passed the Coervice Acts to punish Boston
The colonists called them the Intolerable Acts
They closed the Boston Harbor until the colonist paid for the ruined tea
They also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their homes
They also prohibited most town meetings The Continental Congress In 1774, 55 men arrived in Philadelphia sent as delegates from all of the colonies except for Georgia
Some of these men are:
John Adams
John Jay
Samuel Adams
Richard Henry Lee
Patrick Henry
George Washington
They drafted a list of grievances calling for the repeal of the 13 acts since 1763
They also voted to boycott all British goods and trades
Decided to form Militias The First Battles Colonists expected that if fighting broke out against the British, it would probably start in New England
The British also prepared for conflict
By April of 1775, Sir Thomas Gage had 3,000 soldiers in and around Boston under his command with more on the way
Gage ordered the soldiers to take away the weapons of Massachusetts Militia and arrest the leaders of the colony's resistance movement
Gage sent700 troops to Concord to destroy all of their artillery
April 18, 1775, Dr. Joseph Warren walked the streets of Boston and when he saw a regiment form ranks in the Boston Commons, he rushed to alert Paul Revere and William Dawes
Then Dawes and Revere rushed to alert Samuel Adams and John Hancock
When the redcoats reached Lexington, they came across about 70 minutemen and a fight broke out
When the fight was over there were 8 minutemen dead
When the redcoats were on their back to Boston, there were minutemen waiting for them
By the time they got back, there were 200 redcoats wounded and 73 dead More Military Action May 10, 1775, Ethan Allen led a small group of New Englanders known as the Green Mountain Boys to capture Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain
When the colonial militia assembled around Boston, there were more than 20,000 troops
On June 16, 1775, about 1,200 militiamen under the command of Colonel William Prescott set up fortifications at Bunker Hill
British won the battle of Bunker Hill with more than 1,000 dead and wounded
the colonists heard about the battles and split up between Loyalits (those who chose to stay with Britain), and Patriots (those who were determined to fight the British until American Independance was won)
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