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Selma March

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by

Erin McHugh

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Selma March

The Selma March (1965)

By: Paige Boyadjis, Gabriela Conlan, and Erin McHugh
Background
Jimmie Lee Jackson
The First March
Bloody Sunday
The Aftermath
The Civil Rights movement- mid-1950s
Effort to gain equal rights and end segregation
Poll tax, literacy tests, "grandfather clause," intimidation, etc. prevented African Americans from voting

January 2, 1965- campaign held on the issue of voter registration
Residents of Alabama
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Southern Christian Leadership Conferences (SCLC)
Dallas County Voters League (DCVL)
Martin Luther King Jr.

Much discrimination in voter registration preventing African Americans from voting
African American Voter Registration
Voting Percentages:
February 18, 1965
An Alabama state trooper shot African American
Jimmie Lee Jackson
Trying to protect his mother
His death sparked initiative for the first march
March 7, 1965
600 people met at Brown Chapel Church
Protested Jackson's death and demanded an end to voter registration discrimination
John Lewis
and
Hosea Williams
led the march (Martin Luther King Jr. couldn't be present)
Crossing the Edmund Pettus bridge, demonstrators were stopped and ordered to disperse
Major John Cloud
ordered his men to advance
Demonstrators got attacked and white civilians watched
Police officers on horses chased after the marchers
After being beaten on the head at Edmund Pettus,
John Lewis
said, “
I don’t see how President Johnson can send troops to Vietnam—I don’t see how he can send troops to the Congo—I don’t see how he can send troops to Africa and can’t send troops to Selma.

Violence sparked more demonstrations
King planned a 2nd march to be held 2 days later
MLK called, "...
on religious leaders from all over the nation to join us on Tuesday in our peaceful, nonviolent march for freedom.
"
Federal District Judge Frank M. Johnson ordered a restraining order on the demonstrators until March 11
The Second March
March 9, 1965
2nd march was held, from Selma to the Edmund Pettus Bridge, where the last march met brutality
The crowd turned back at the barricade of state troopers
More than 2,000 marchers came
At the bridge, they kneeled and prayed

Federal Involvement Begins
Additional Federal Involvement
March 10, 1965
US Justice Department filed a suit to prevent the state from punishing any person involved in a demonstration
March 17, 1965
Federal District Court
Judge Frank M. Johnson Jr.
rules in favor of the demonstrators
"
The law is clear that the right to petition one's government for the redress of grievances may be exercised in large groups.
"
Governor Wallace
The same day, President Johnson spoke out against the violence in Selma
Promised to make it so Alabamian police couldn't interfere with demonstrators
Governor George Wallace
condemned Johnson’s ruling
Said Alabama did not have enough troops and couldn't afford to call in the National Guard
Johnson issued an executive ordering federalizing the Alabama National Guard
The Third March

Their cause must be our cause too. Because it is not just Negroes, but really it is all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome.

-
President Lyndon B. Johnson
in an address to Congress
March 21-25, 1965
Started with 3,200 marchers
Protected by National Guardsmen and FBI agents
Covered between 7-17 miles per day
Limited to 300 marches per 2 lane highway
25,000 people present on the last day
The Final Rally
The marchers reached Montgomery on March 25, 1965
King gave an inspirational speech


The end we seek is a society at peace with itself, a society that can live with its conscience. And that will be a day not of the white man, not of the black man. That will be the day of man as man
.”
Significance & Legacy
The
Voting Rights Act
(August 6, 1965) was
Television nationalized the march
Brought national and federal attention to Civil Rights
Turning point in the fight for Civil Rights
People march the same route marched in 1965 on the anniversary of the Selma marches each year
The Journey
5 days
54 miles
Sign encouraging voters to pay their poll tax in order to vote
Jimmie Lee Jackson
Map from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama
Police beats marcher with a club on Bloody Sunday
Images depicting police brutality on Bloody Sunday
MLK leading a march for Civil Rights
Marchers kneel and pray at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in reflection of Bloody Sunday
President Johnson stands before Congress speaking about the violence in Selma
President Lyndon B. Johnson
Demonstrators at the first march on March 7, 1965
Protestors, including MLK, march in unison to Montgomery
MLK gives a heartfelt speech to an attentive crowd
Demonstrators reenact the march at the Edmund Pettus Bridge in 2012
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement/videos/bloody-sunday-1965#

Video Clip

I am certain Americans everywhere join in deploring the brutality with which a number of Negro citizens of Alabama were treated when they sought to dramatize their deep and sincere interest in attaining the precious right to vote. The best legal talent in the Federal Government is engaged in preparing legislation which will secure that right for every American.

Conclusion
Successful protest for Civil Rights
Gave hope to African Americans for nondiscriminatory voting registration
Still was discrimination after the Voting Rights Act, but much less
A major step on the way to equal rights
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&docid=wOXS-giCCyQQuM&tbnid=B3todo-o44UCIM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.glogster.com%2Fprodigious%2Fmarch-from-selma-to-montgomery%2Fg-6mc44cpr922n56q0rasuua0&ei=AGA7U-iyC4_jsATf_ILoCA&bvm=bv.63934634,d.ZG4&psig=AFQjCNH_P3jps0Qh9fZikE7vNE54gp6dZw&ust=1396486495246255
Full transcript