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Biology-Chapter 52

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Ina Hoang

on 1 February 2013

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Transcript of Biology-Chapter 52

Chapter 52: What is ecology? Definitions, terms and the vocabulary of The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. Organismal Ecology: Includes the subdisciplines of physiological, evolutionary, and
behavioral ecology, is concerned with how an organisms structure, physiology, and (for
animals) behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment.

Population: Group of individuals of the same species living in an area.

Population Ecology: analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it
changes through time.

Community: A group of populations of different species in an area.

Community Ecology: Examines how interactions between species, such as predation and
competition, affect community structure and organization. Explain the "rain shadow" effect A rain shadow is a dry area on the the back side of a mountainous area. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems casting a "shadow" of dryness behind them. An introduction to Ecology and the biosphere. Environmentalism is advocating the protection of nature and it ties in with ecology because since ecology is the study of animals in the environment the environment needs to be protected. Since environmentalism is focusing on protecting the environment, ecology is made possible so animals can be studied in their natural habitat. Ecology Ecosystem: The community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which
those organisms interact.

Ecosystem Ecology: Emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms
and the environment.

Landscape Ecology: Focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials,
and organisms across multiple ecosystems.

Biosphere: The global ecosystem-the sum of all the planets ecosystems and landscapes.

Global Ecology: Examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences
the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere. What is climate? What abiotic factors are its components? Climate is the long-term, prevailing weather conditions in a particular area. It's abiotic components are temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind. Factors of the Earth's axis and curvature and how it would influence precipitation and temperature in the area. The closer that hemisphere of the Earth would be closer to the sun the warmer it would be (the axis, because the Earth is slightly tilted). Also because it is curved the intensity of the sun is different in different places. The precipitation will also affect the air flow which will influence precipitation. Why is the Pacific Northwest so rainy? What causes the Mediterranean climate? The Pacific Northwest is very rainy because ocean currents influence climate along the coasts of continents by heating or cooling overlying air masses, which goes across the land. Coastal regions are generally moister than inland areas at
the same latitude. The cool, misty climate produced by the cold California current that flows southward along the Western United States supports a coniferous rain forest ecosystem in the Pacific Northwest and large redwood groves farther south.
Because of the high specific heat of water, oceans, and large lakes tend to moderate the climate of nearby land. During a hot day, when the land is warmer than the nearby body of water, air over the land heats up and rises, bringing a cool breeze from the water across the land. At night, air over the now warmer water rises, bringing cooler air from the land back over the water, replacing it with warmer air from offshore. What effect does elevation have on climate? Why do we say that hiking from Gatlinburg, Tennessee, at 393 meters of elevation in the Smoky Mountains region, to the top of Mount LeConte, at 2010 meters, is like traveling to Canada? At higher elevations it is colder than at lower elevations. An increase in altitude, such as climbing a mountain is similar to heading north (in the northern hemisphere) plant and animal species will be similar at a mountain top to those which are further north. What is a biome? Major terrestrial or aquatic life zones, characterized by vegetation type and physical environment. What is the largest marine biome, and how much of Earth's surface does it cover? The oceans are the largest marine biome and it covers 75%. Vocabulary, facts and terms and definitions Of Ecology part 2 Photic Zone- sufficient light for photosynthesis

Aphtoic Zone- Where little light penetrates

Benthic Zone- At the bottom of all aquatic biomes made up of, sand and organic and inorganic sediments.

Pelagic Zone- It is located neither near the bottom nor the shore

Oligotrophic Lakes- Nutrient poor and oxygen rich lakes.

Eutrophic Lakes- Nutrient rich and often depleted of Oxygen in the deepest zone in the summer and if ice covered in the winter. Zooplankton- It is a heterotroph and they eat phytoplankton.

Phytoplankton- Autotroph of the plankton community.

Neritic- Seafloor below the surface waters of the coastal zone.

Abyssal- Very deep benthic zone

Littoral Zone- Rooted and floating aquatic plants live in this zone because it is shallow and has well lighted waters close to the shore.

Limnetic Zone- Farther from shore where the water is too deep to support rooted aquatic plants, this zone is inhabited by a variety of plankton and bacteria. What environmental issue was targeted in Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring? What was the outcome of her efforts? Carson talked about the dangers of pesticides. The issue with that being it was causing declines in other species, not just the targeted pest. The outcome of this was a new environmental ethic to lawmakers and the public. This led to more awareness and a more stringent control of chemical usage. What is biogeography? What factors determine the distribution of organisms? Biogeography- The study of the past and present distribution of species, in the context of evolutionary theory.

Some factors included:
Biotic- Or living factors (all the organisms that are part of the individual’s environment)
Abiotic- Nonliving factors, all the chemical and physical factors, such as temperature, light, water, and nutrients. Biotic factor/Example and description A species cannot complete its full life cycle if transplanted to a new area. This inability to survive and reproduce may be because of negative interactions with other organisms in the form of predation, parasitism, or competition. Survival and reproduction may be limited because of the absence of other species on which the transplanted species depends, like pollinators for flowering plants.
So… Organisms that eat can limit the distribution of organisms that get eaten. Abiotic Factor/Example and description Abiotic means that the environment in which organisms reside is not living. Some abiotic factors are temperature, water, salinity, sunlight, and soil. These factors can limit a species distribution. Most abiotic factors vary in space and time. An example of temperature is when the water freezes at a very low temperature. An example of water is if there is no water in dry environments or if the water is contaminated. An example of salinity is the salt concentration that can come from salt flats. An example of sunlight is the amount of sunlight absorbed by photosynthetic organisms (such as producers), and an example of soil is the pH and mineral composition of the soil. What is the difference between ecology and environmentalism?
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