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Lesson 1 & 2 - Introduction to Development Gap - Measuring it & Theories
Transcript of Lesson 1 & 2 - Introduction to Development Gap - Measuring it & Theories
In pairs look at the following image and try to write your own definition of what development:
Development geography is a branch of geography which refers to the standard of living and quality of life of its human inhabitants. In this context, development is a process of change that affects people's lives. It may involve an improvement in the quality of life as perceived by the people undergoing change.
(Geography of Global Interactions)
Hans Rosling, World Health Expert and Statician
A modern take on development
1.a) Why is GDP a useful indicator when assessing development?
b)Are there any limitations in using just this indicator?
2. Give three examples of broader measures of development.
Are these more or less useful? Are they linked to GDP?
3. Define GDI and GEM.
4. Look at the map on p105 briefly describe the distribution of how regions in the world perform on the HDI.
5. Look at the 8 development goals on p106.
a) Why do you think these eight were chosen?
b) Rank them in order of importance.
c) In a perfect world looking at the goals do you think they will provide universal development for all?
Read pages 104-106
The world has changed:
Is is not simple as developed and developing. Countries are varying in terms of development, along a much wider spectrum.
Globalisation and the associated development with capatilism has played a large part in helping countries develop. In some cases for the better and others the worse.
Bridging the Development Gap
To understand what the Development Gap is and why it is exists.
Discuss some of the theories used to explain development.
Investigate why it is not as simple as developed and developing.
What development indicators are useful gauges of development?
Do we include wealth or health?
Education or well-being?
Lets check Gapminder out!
Using different websites such as GAPMINDER, www.worldmapper.org, CIA worldfact book, use statistics to produce graphs and chloropleth maps to show contrasts in development between different countries.
Compare Spain with other ´developed´ nations, and ´perceived ´developing nations:
Must include GDP and HDI
Choose 3 other relevant indicators.
For each indicator ensure you choose countries to contrast with.
Describe your findings, and produce a mini fact-file saving any graphs, tables and maps.
Rapid expansion of tertiary services, employment in service industries grow but decline in manufacturing
Subsistence economy based on farming with limited technology or capital to develop
Many industries grow, airports and roads are built. Political and social changes. Farming will decline. Investment or borrowing increases
Growth should be self-sustaining. Often multiplier effects in similar industry types. Rapid urbanisation
Often an injection of external help – industries develop and growth of infrastructure. Often single industry will dominate
Model assumes that all countries start off at the
Although capital is needed to advance from a traditional society it often brings debt repayments which stop a country developing.
Under-estimates the extent and impact of colonialism.
Predicts too short a timescale between the beginning of growth and becoming self-sustaining.
Is this model valid?
Development is like an electric cable – the power to drive countries from primitive to more advanced states.
Core is economic growth, technology and enterprise.
The Outer is many different aspects of development growth.
North South Divide
Describe the development cable and the size of the relative proportions
OECD, WORLD BANK, BBC, GUARDIAN
Single economic measures of GDP / GNI per capita;
perhaps the most commonly used measure; issues related to nominal or PPP versions and overall conversion / exchange rate calculations; lack of regional picture and urban and rural contrasts but it does make for an easy comparison between nations; very widely understood; very narrow view of what development is i.e. related to money / wealth.
Single social measures such as literacy, infant mortality, life expectancy;
perhaps reflect the importance of human development and therefore see development in a broader context; difficulties of getting data in some places (Sudan, Somalia, North Korea) and exceptions / anomalies such as Cuba.
More ‘modern’ indicators
such as mobiles, internet, landlines – leapfrogging might make these fairly meaningless or difficult to interpret
Composite indices such as HDI, Gender Development Index, PQLI
– often seen as more accurate as they iron out extremes by including 3+ measures; perhaps give a more ‘rounded’ view but data may be incomplete – might be related to a model such as the development cable.
such as carbon footprints, ESI/EPI; possibly show the link between human and ecosystem wellbeing as an indicator of development.
Common ways (measures / indicators) that might be mentioned include:
Theories used to explain the DG
A deterministic approach based on the history of a number of developed countries. Distinct social and economic changes needed for one country to move from one stage to another.
Blames under-development of the developing world on exploitation by the developed world, first through colonialism and then by various elements of neo-colonialism.
World System/Core Periphery is based on the history of the world capitalist economy. Countries fall into three economic levels, and can move from one level to another if their contribution to the world economy changes.