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Untitled Prezi

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Amanda Rodriguez

on 3 May 2013

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The Roman, Han, Maurya and Gupta empires created political, cultural and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse and transformation into successor empires or states.
Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage (such as deforestation, desertification, soil erosion or silted rivers) and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites.
External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions
Northern China and Xiongnu
Gupta and the White Huns
Romans and the Germanic Tribes Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.
Rome: paterfamilias
Han China: Confucianism
Mauryan/Gupta: Hinduism Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Imperial societies relied on a range of labor systems to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites, including corvée, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities, and family and household production.
Rome/Persia: slave labor
Slave revolts
Han China: corvée
Mauryan/Gupta: caste system supported by religion Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires The social structures of all empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites and caste groups.
Rome: patron-client relationships; plebians/partricians; use of slaves
Persia: use of slaves
Han China: Confucian system; no merchants
Mauryan/Gupta: caste system Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Imperial societies displayed unique social and economic dimensions.
Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and as political administration for states and empires
Persia: Persepolis
Han China: Chang’an
Mauryan/Gupta: Pataliputra
Greece: Athens
Rome: Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople
Mayans: Teotihuacan Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Imperial governments projected military power over larger areas using a variety of techniques, including diplomacy; developing supply lines; building fortifications, defensive walls and roads; and drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from the local populations or conquered peoples.
Rome: Legionaries; soldiers looted what they conquered; Roman Roads; Hadrian’s Wall
Persia: Road system
Han China: Great Wall; road system
Mauryan/Gupta: didn’t build at all Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms.
Han China: Imperial system; civil service exam for bureaucracy positions
Mauryan/Gupta: used locals for control and tied them to the Emperor through economics; (Babur, Ashoka) Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Wars for expansion:
Persian Wars with Greece The number and size of imperial societies grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states.
Rome
Han
Persia
Mauryan & Gupta Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Hindu Akshardham temple in South Delhi Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments.
Greek tragedy and comedies
Oedipus Rex & Lysatrata
Indian Epics
Bhagavad Gita
Architecture
Greek, Indian, Roman, Mesoamerica
Gandhara Buddhas
Example of Hellenistic spread of Greco-Roman culture Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified, written belief systems in core civilizations.
Shamanism
Animism
Ancestor worship Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Belief systems affected gender roles:
Hinduism: women were subservient to men
Buddhism: monastic life; women not accepted in monasteries
Confucianism: women were to support husbands and be mothers; filial piety
Christianity: women were equal in original teachings; church development changes this
Judaism: women have specific roles, but not undervalued Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths.
Greco-Roman Ideals
Logic
Human law
Empirical observation
Political power Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths.
Daoism
Developed during Warring States period
Believed balance with nature would maintain peace
Influences medicine, art, and architecture Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths.
Confucianism
Developed during the Warring States Period
peace would be maintained if everyone followed the 5 right relationships
Leader is to be a moral example to followers Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths.
Buddhism
All can reach Nirvana in this life
Reincarnation is not necessary
Caste doesn’t matter
Ashoka: Buddhist leader of Mauyran Dynasty
Two forms: Therevada and Mahayana
Spread through SE and E Asia along trade routes
Monasticism and missionary work Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.
Judaism
Ethical monotheism
Began by Abraham
Became of political empire under Solomon and David
Destroyed by Babylon= Jewish Diaspora
Talmud= Jewish Holy Book; includes the 10 Commandments & book of laws
Hinduism:
Based on Vedas
Set ethical coeds through caste system
Provided a political and social system for India
Karma, dharma, reincarnation Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions TP 2 600 BCE- 600 CE Hammurabi’s Code
Epic of Gilgamesh
Book of the Dead
Polytheism
Monotheism
Ziggurat
Pyramid
Patriarchy Yellow
Nile
Indus
Pastoralism
Neolithic Revolution
Hittites
Megalith
Tigris & Euphrates
Oracle bones Cuneiform
Animism
Hieroglyphics
Menes
Akhenaton
Sargon I
Irrigation
Shang
Olmec
Chavin 8000 BCE- 600 BCE Terms/Events/People Key Concept 1.3
The Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies Pastoralist developed new technologies
Compound bows
Chariots
Iron (Hittites)
Will transform warfare for agrarian societies Key Concept 1.3
The Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies Egypt
Pharaoh was seen as a god
Used wealth to maintain social hierarchy
Complex religion and belief in the after life
Conquered south
Menes, Akhenaton, Rameses II
Pyramids, gold, chariots
Advanced chemistry, medicine, geometry, calendar Mesopotamia Key Concept 1.3
The Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies Sumerians
First civilization
Used city-state structure
Akkadians
First Empire (ever) under Sargon I
Conquered areas that were beyond “Akkadian” city-states
Babylonia
Largest, most long lasting empire in Ancient Mesopotamia
Hammurabi’s Code shows use of law & complex social structure http://historum.com/ancient-history/20930-other-river-valley-civilizations.html Key Concept 1.3
The Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies Effects: more food= increased population
Increased population= specialization of labor
Social classes developed: warriors, artisans, elites
New technologies: metallurgy, pottery, wheels, wheeled vehicles, plows, woven textiles
Increased trade
Trade and specialization creates “wealth”
Division of labor based on gender= patriarchal societies Key Concept 1.2
The Neolithic Revolution & Early Agricultural Societies Possible climate change led to the development of permanent villages
Pastoralism: following animals as they graze nomadic lifestyle
Led to environmental problems of erosion caused by overgrazing
Domestication of crops and animals
Development of farming techniques
Clearing land & irrigation systems Key Concept 1.2
The Neolithic Revolution & Early Agricultural Societies Spread out of Africa and into Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
Economics
Hunting-gathering
Kinship groups would trade people, ideas, and goods
Social
Kinship family groups
Did not develop complex systems
Religion
Animistic: focus on nature based gods; needed god-like figures to explain natural happenings like rain, thunder, etc
New technologies
Use of fire (for heat and cooking)
Stone tools (axes and spears) Key Concept 1.1
Geography and the Peopling of the Earth 8000 BCE- 600 BCE Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.
Rome: Silk Road network; Mediterranean Sea trade; coins
Persia: coins; middle of the Silk Road
Han China: barter; Silk Road; did not promote economic wealth due to Confucianism
Mauryan/Gupta: allowed trade & didn’t have much economic involvement Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms.
Rome: imperial system with Senate and Roman governors; Twelve Tables; Emperor had absolute control, but had to not make the Senate mad in fear of assassination; Emperorship was an inherited position ( Augustus, Constantine, Diocletian)
Persia: Imperial system with Satraps who were sometimes not Persian; Darius had Rock Pillar Edicts (Cyrus, Xeres, Darius) Key Concept 2.2. The Development of States and Empires Wars for expansion:
Punic Wars
Caesar's campaigns
Each emperor added New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths.
Christianity
Founded during the Roman Empire
Based on ethical monotheism of Judaism; added the idea of a “Hell”
Jesus is a Messiah figure who is to bridge the gap between God and human;
Persecuted and limited, but eventual spread forced political acceptance
Spread along trade routes; missionary and monastic work
Will become the base of middle ages Europe Key Concept 2.1. The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Key Concept 1.3
The Development & Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies Development of states
Created to organize labor and resources
Led by a ruler with divine power or with support of the divine; power rested in religious hierarchy and professional warriors
Developed competition over land and resources
States who had better access to resources became more powerful & began to expand
Mesopotamia and Egypt
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