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FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
Transcript of FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
The background of the war
and Indian War was thought in the year 1754 and it lasted until the year 1763 ( 7 years ).
French and British possessions in North America
French and Britain owned territory in North America. Britain owned the '' Thirteen Colonies '' and Nova Scotia. France ruled an area called '' New France ''. Both France and Britain had frontiers. Britain controlled 1,500,000 colonists while France controlled 75,000.
EVENTS THAT CAUSED THE WAR
Events that caused the war
Charles de Langlade
A Frenchman named Charles de Langlade send 250 warriors to attack what is now Ohio. He destroyed the village’s
British trading post.
Both English and French settlers wanted land in the Ohio River Valley.
RIGHTS TO THE
The English settlers, who had moved northwest from Virginia, and the French settlers, who had moved east from the Great Lakes, thought that they owned the rights to the land.
The Battle of
In 1754, George Washington send the English forces to Fort Duquesne. On the way, they found a French party near present-day Uniontown. Washington’s men massacred the party. It´s known as The Battle of Jumonville Glen.
Washington took camp at Great Meadows and ordered the construction of a fort, Fort Necessity in anticipation of a French response. The French did respond.
The French and Indian war was fought not only in North America also in the Caribbean, throughout Europe, and in India and Africa.
War had began
the attack on Pickawillany village
The attack on Pickawillany village
The Miami Indians settled Pickawillany in 1747. The village was located on the Great Miami River in western Ohio. Pickawillany grew very quickly and soon held one of the largest concentration of Miami within the Ohio Country.
The Miamis grew tired of poor treatment by French traders, who often charged high prices for their trade goods. They refused to trade any longer with the French or their Indian allies.
La Demoiselle was the Miami chief of Pickawillany during the 1750s. He invited the British to set up a trading post at Pickawillany and challenged French control of the region. In 1750, Celeron de Bienville stopped in Pickawillany. He was unsuccessful to convince La Demoiselle to create stronger ties with the French
The following year, the French raided the town, killing two Miamis and capturing two British traders. But this did not change La Demoiselle
In 1752, the French and their Indian allies attacked the town, taking five British traders prisoner and killing La Demoiselle. The attackers used the Miami women, who had been working in the cornfields when the attack began, as hostages to force the Miamis to turn over the British traders.
After the attack, the Miamis abandoned Pickawillany and moved west into present-day Indiana. The British did nothing to retaliate against the attack.
The Miamis, and other Ohio Indians, began to believe that an alliance with the French would be more advantageous than an alliance with the British, who were either unwilling or unable to protect their allies.
Celeron de Bienville
was a French military leader and explorer of Ohio in the mid-1700s. His 1749 expedition to the Ohio Country is one of the more memorable of the era.
Construction of French forts in 1753
Fort Le Boeuf
Fort Le Boeuf
was established by the French in 1753 in present-day Waterford, in northwest Pennsylvania. The fort was part of a line that included Fort Presque Isle, Fort Machault, and Fort Duquesne.
Fort Presque Isle
Fort Presque Isle
was built by French soldiers in summer 1753 along Presque Isle Bay at Erie, Pennsylvania, to protect the northern terminus of the Venango Path. It was the first of the French posts built in the Ohio Country
was a fort built by the French in 1754 near the confluence of French Creek with the Allegheny River, in northwest Pennsylvania.
This fort was the second in a series of posts that the French built between spring 1753 and summer 1754 to assert their possession of the Ohio Country. These four forts, Fort Presque Isle, Fort LeBoeuf, Fort Machault, and Fort Duquesne ran from Lake Erie to the Forks of the Ohio; they represented the last links in France's effort to connect its dominions in Canada with those in the Illinois Country and Louisiana.
In December 1753, George Washington reached Fort Machault during his first expedition into the Ohio Country. Washington had an escort of seven men and a letter from Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia, protesting the French invasion of lands claimed by Great Britain and demanding their immediate withdrawal. The French officer at the fort said that he did not have the power to negotiate with the British.
Therefore, he told Washington to go to Fort Le Boeuf instead to meet with a higher-ranking officer.
was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
lots of battles
during the french and indian war. One of the
war was the first one,
The Battle of Jumonville Glen.
The Battle of
The Battle of Jumonville Glen was the opening battle of the French and Indian War. It was fought on May 28th, in the year 1754 near what is today Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania
A company of colonial militia from Virginia under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Washington, and a small number of Mingo warriors led by Tanacharison, ambushed a force of 35 Canadiens under the command of Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville.
The British colonial force had been sent to protect a fort under construction under the auspices of the Ohio Company at the location of present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A larger Canadien force had driven off the small construction crew, and sent Jumonville to warn Washington about encroaching on French-claimed territory. Washington was alerted to Jumonville's presence by Tanacharison, and they joined forces to surround the Canadian camp
the Canadians were killed in the ambush, and most of the others were captured. Jumonville was among the slain, although the exact circumstances of his death are a subject of historical controversy and debate.
Washington's map of the Ohio River and surrounding region containing notes on French intentions, 1753.
Since Britain and France were not then at war, the event had international repercussions, and was a contributing factor in the start of the Seven Years' War in 1756. After the action, Washington retreated to Fort Necessity, where Canadian forces from Fort Duquesne compelled his surrender.
The terms of Washington's surrender included a statement (written in French, a language Washington did not read) admitting that Jumonville was assassinated. This document and others were used by the French and Canadiens to level accusations that Washington had ordered Jumonville's slaying.
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
(Battle of Quebec)
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec, began on 13 September 1759, was fought between the British Army and Navy, and the French Army, on a plateau just outside the walls of Quebec City, on land that was originally owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin, hence the name of the battle.
The battle involved fewer than 10,000 troops between both sides, but proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, influencing the later creation of Canada. The battle lasted about 15 minutes. British troops commanded by General James Wolfe successfully resisted the column advance of French troops and Canadien militia under General Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm, using new tactics that proved extremely effective against standard military formations used in most large European conflicts.
Both generals were mortally wounded during the battle; Wolfe received three gunshot wounds that would end his life within minutes of the beginning of the engagement and Montcalm died the next morning after receiving a musket ball wound just below his ribs. In the wake of the battle, the French evacuated the city; their remaining military force in Canada and the rest of North America came under increasing pressure from British forces.
While the French forces continued to fight and prevailed in several battles after Quebec was captured, the British did not relinquish their hold on the virtually impregnable Citadelle. That tenacity carried over to other areas in North America; within four years, with the Treaty of Paris, most of France's possessions in eastern North America would be ceded to Great Britain.
As a result of the British victory in the French and Indian War, France was effectively expelled from the New World. They relinquished virtually all of their New World possessions including all of Canada. They did manage to retain a few small islands off the coast of Canada and in the Caribbean
They also agreed to stay out of India, which made Great Britain the supreme military power in that part of Asia. In addition, as compensation for Spain’s loss of Florida to England, Spain was awarded the Louisiana territory. The entire face of North America had been dramatically changed. Following the war, England issued the Proclamation of 1763, which restricted settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains in an attempt to appease Indians who had developed positive relations with France. Westward-bound settlers, however, ignored the proclamation and moved into Indian lands.
Because English had incurred significant debt while fighting the war in and for the colonies, Parliament attempted to recoup the financial loss by issuing the 1765 Stamp Act on the colonists. The Stamp Act was a tax on virtually all printed documents.
The tax was ill-received by the colonists, who began a boycott of British goods and even attacked British tax collectors. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and instead issued the Declaratory Act, which maintained Britain’s right to tax the colonists. These tax issues would become the cause of an even greater conflict 10 years later, The American Revolution.
The war changed economic, political, governmental and social relations between three European powers (Britain, France, and Spain), their colonies and colonists, and the natives that inhabited the territories they claimed. France and Britain both suffered financially because of the war, with significant long-term consequences.
to North America in 1778 with the establishment of a Franco-American alliance against Great Britain in the
American War of Independence.
For many native populations, the elimination of French power in North America meant the disappearance of a strong ally and counterweight to British expansion, leading to their ultimate dispossession. The Ohio Country was particularly vulnerable to legal and illegal settlement due to the construction of military roads to the area by Braddock and Forbes.