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Arabic

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Brandi Trevino

on 11 June 2014

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Transcript of Arabic

In traditional Arab societies the women are subordinate to men.

In more urban areas there is a greater influence of Western civilization.

Family is the key social unit and children are the most important.

Family is first, then clan, then tribe and many Arabs express a national identity.

Arabic communities are very tight-knit groups.

Religion is oftentimes central to everything else.

Literacy and education are very important.
Native Arabic speaker Speaking English
Arabic Sounds
For all lesson: www.L2RQ.com
Where is Arabic spoken?
Countries in which Arabic holds an offical status:
Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia
United Arab Emirates, Yemen Republic
Speakers of Other Languages

Cross-Linguistic Influence on
Morphology and Syntax
WIDA: word/ phrase level; sentence level

Specific Examples of Common Challenges
for Native Arabic ELLs
in Pronunciation and Spelling
* Arabic ELL students tend to try to pronounce words phonetically.
Example:
forigen
for
foreign
* Spelling errors due to the 1-1 phoneme-letter system of Arabic.
Examples:
captin
,
extremly
,
monky
(Saigh & Schmitt, 2012)
* Confusion between short i, /I/, and short e, /e/, due to the fact that the Arabic system doesn't have the /e/ sound.
Example:
cilibration
(Saigh & Schmitt, 2012)
* Most common vowel problem areas:
Examples:
cot
for
caught
;
red
for
raid
;
hop
for
hope
* Vowel insertion in consonant clusters that go against the Arabic system. Short vowel sounds are inserted.
Examples:
partener
,
etermely
(Saigh & Schmitt, 2012)
* Confusion between /p/ and /b/ due to the fact that there is not a /p/ present in the Arabic system. English learners use /b/ in place of /p/.
Example:
apsoltly
for
absolutely
* Reluctance to omit consonants.
Example: /
klambed/
for
climbed
* Two-consonant clusters that do not exist in Arabic.
Examples: pr, pl, gl
* Three consonant clusters that do not exist in Arabic.
Examples: spr, and skr

Basic features of Arabic
Cross-Linguistic Influence on
Phonology, Pronunciation, and Orthography
WIDA: word/phrase level


Arabic and English have very different phonological systems, both in range of sounds, and emphasis placed on vowels and consonants in expressing meaning.
Arabic includes more guttural and velarized sounds.
Arabic is consonantal. Words almost always begin with a single consonant, followed by a vowel. Few words begin with a vowel.
Modern Standard Arabic has 32 consonants, with a letter representation for each. English has 24 consonants.
Arabic has only 8 vowels and diphthongs. English has 22 vowels and diphthongs. All vowels potentially cause problems for ELLs.
Consonants, long vowels, and diphthongs are what give meaning. The three short vowels in Arabic have little significance. In writing, short vowels are either omitted, or represented with a diacritical mark. Readers must supply the missing short vowel.
Cross-linguistic positive transfer for phonology and pronunciation: see chart in this Prezi, “English sounds most similar to Arabic.”
Sound-based writing system. Like English, phonemes are represented by graphemes. 1-1 phoneme-grapheme representation: spelling is phonetic, 28 letters. English is more complex, depending on combinations of phonemes.
Written letters change form, depending on their location within the word: beginning, middle, end.
Arabic is written/read from right to left, except for numerals.
No similarities between English and Arabic writing systems. Care should be taken to recognize that Arabic ELLs will likely need more time to learn English writing compared to other ELLs that come from a more related writing system.
Arab is a cultural and linguistic term that refers to those who speak Arabic as their first language.

It is not a race, and Arabs can be light- skinned, dark-skinned, blue-eyed, or have red hair.

Many Arabs are Muslims, but there are also Christian Arabs and Jewish Arabs.

Arabs are Semites. Semites refers to anyone that speaks one of the Semitic languages.
The most widely spoken Semitic languages today are... Arabic, Amharic, Tigrinya, Hebrew, and Aramaic

Many Arabs live between two extremes. The desert, whose people are more conservative and traditonal and those who live in the urban areas and have changing traditions and practices.
There are many varieties of colloquial Arabic.
Arabic is a stress-timed language, which is predictable and regular, unlike English.
The love of talking stems from their rich, nomadic, oral tradition of greeting travelers and exchanging information.
Muslims, particulary Arab Muslims, consider the Arabic language holy since the Koran is written in Arabic.
The written word is held in high status by both literate and illiterate Arabs.
Arabs are known for their love poetry and creative speech.
There are two main types of Arabic - Classical Arabic, which is the language of the Koran, and Modern Standard Arabic, which is the universal language of the Arabic world.
Countries in which Arabic is the secondary language:
Chad, Israel, Mauritania, Djibouti, Bangladesh, Azerbeaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Chechnya
The Arabic language is generally equated to those from the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA). Arabic is the language of the Koran, the Holy word of Islam. Those who practice Islam are called Muslims, and regardless of nationality, are typically familiar with the Arabic language.

Arabic is a Semitic language; English is an Indo-European language. Their grammatical structures are very different, resulting in more areas of interference.
Arabic is stress-timed. Word stress is predictable and regular. In English, word stress is much more unpredictable.
Phrase and sentence rhythms are similar in both languages, resulting in more facilitation between the two languages.
Word order: verb first, followed by subject. Adjectives follow nouns and agree in gender and number.
Words consist of two parts. The root is a 3-consosnat cluster, and it provides meaning. The pattern follows with vowels giving the grammatical meaning.
Prefixes and suffixes serve several functions. They act as: subject markers, pronouns, prepositions, and definite articles. (Encyclopedia Britannica)
There are only 2 tenses in Arabic. No: modal verbs, phrasal verbs, future tense, indefinite articles.
Vocabulary acquisition is difficult for Arabic ELLs, since English has very few words borrowed from Arabic. Also, relatively few words have been borrowed from English into Arabic, and they are mostly technical terms. Almost no positive transfer in the area of vocabulary acquisition.

Written Language - English sounds most similar to Arabic
Arabic
Margaret Francia & Brandi Trevino
Arabic Culture
Where is Arabic Spoken?
The Arabic Language
Considerations for Teaching Native Arabic
English Language Learners
References
Ten things to
know about Arabic
Arabic Alphabet
and
Pronunciation
Western Influence
on
Arab Culture
Full transcript