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Teaching Speaking Skills
Transcript of Teaching Speaking Skills
Ch. 19 By Lenar Ruiz and Karla Mendoza To understand the issues related to and challenges faced by adults lacking English-speaking skills
To develop effective practices and standards in order to teach speaking to ESOL learners
To be aware of the importance of interaction and authenticity Objectives A productive oral skill
Consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning
Often spontaneous but not unpredictable
As defined by Florez (1991,p.124), Speaking is “an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving, and processing information.” What is speaking? People usually use two types of speech when interacting/speaking outside of the classroom.
- Interactional speech
- Transactional speech Interactional speech vs. transactional speech THINK PAIR SHARE Work with the person next to you. There will be two columns (interactional and transactional), place the following situations under the column that describes them best.(2 mins) Interactional speech vs. transactional speech On your own, you will have 30 seconds to generate a phrase that describes both of these words, as well as an example or situation for each Then with a partner you will share the ideas you came up with (1 min.) You will then share with the class! Four purposes of learning: Why learn English? Four purposes of learning:
Bridge to the future
These four purposes provide a framework for describing the oral communication needs of adult ESOL learners. In your groups:
each group will be assigned one of the four purposes of learning.
make up a phrase that describes your purpose.
make up an example/reason of why this is an important purpose for learning.
You will have 5 minutes. What are some challenges currently facing ESOL learners? Lack of interactive language skills
Initial perceptions of individuals are often based on their speech As educators, what can we do to help? “It is always important that teachers tailor classes according to learners’ needs.”- Meijing
"practicing speaking over the phone with other students playing the roles…”- Brian
“speaking is related to their daily use”- Yao DQ 2: To promote English Language Development in your adult learners, what specific in-class activity would you implement in your class? DQ 2: To promote English Language Development in your adult learners, what specific in-class activity would you implement in your class? “use of language is appropriate depending on their interlocutors.”- Sachiko
“students need to learn to decode language based on audio input only.”- Ann
“Problem based learning is a good way to carry out meaningful content-based learning.”- Yutong What 3 methods or approaches dominated language teaching in the U.S. for past 60 years? The Grammar Translation Method The Audiolingual Method Communicative Language Teaching “A person’s sensitivity to and conscious awareness of the nature of language and its role in human life” (Donmall, 1985, p.134) Language awareness movement Key characteristics: Experiential Task-based Critical Improving pronunciation and intelligibility The importance of pronunciation and intelligibility…
There will be two teams
You have a 45 seconds to pass along a message (which I will give to you) to the last person in line. The last person in line is responsible for writing the message on the board. Whoever finishes writing it on the board first (and correctly) is the winner Telephone clarification requests Three types of conversational moves confirmation checks comprehension checks Spelleri (2002, p. 149) defines authentic materials “any items created for the general community and not specifically for the ESL community”
Three issues to consider for authenticity: Authenticity Conclusion: authentic materials must be relevant to _____________. learners' lives Authenticity of the text Authenticity of the task Authenticity of response According to Major (2001, p. 123), learning the sound system of a language entails mastering:
Individual segments (vowel and consonant phonemes)
Combination of segments
Prosody (stress, intonation, rhythm, etc)
Global accent The Components of Spoken English What is communicative competence? Communicative Competence What are the four components included in communicative competence? Linguistic competence
Discourse competence Each of you will receive an index card with a word or phrase on both sides of the card. You will try and figure out whether the word or phrase that was just said refers to your card. If it does, you will read aloud the answer and then say the word, phrase, situation, or reference that is on the other side of your card. I will begin the activity. I have…who has? Crandall (1993, p.154) stated: “adult education is a stepchild of K-12 education and an afterthought in U.S. educational policy.”
“the bigger challenge I feel is the availability of technology in many, if not most, of the classrooms where the economically challenged adult ESOL learners are learning English.”- Bruce
What do you think? How can we, as educators, help this group of learners acquire the English speaking skills they need? Final thoughts… OBJECTIVES
Understand concepts in pedagogical research
Understand what makes speaking difficult for language learners
Apply principles for teaching speaking skill to own practice
Familiarize with Conversation and Pronunciation techniques
Understand Form & Error Treatment and Assessing Speaking Scenario: It was the beginning of the middle of the Fall semester and the AHT 4077 Monday Class just received an assignment to teach speaking (English) in Thailand.
Story Starter: The TC English teachers, exhausted yet extremely excited, landed safely in Bangkok…
conversation pronunciation accuracy fluency interaction
rate of delivery intonation transactional responsive interpersonal motivation feedback native language exposure imitative intensive techniques In your teams, designate a “reporter,” and then briefly share key terms or ideas that touch on the following questions: (2 minutes) 1. What are some issues to consider when you teach speaking? 2. What are some difficulties learners face when learning how to speak? 3. What are Brown’s principles for teaching Speaking Skills? 4. What are some techniques on how to teach conversation? What are some techniques on how to teach pronunciation? ISSUES regarding
ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Team Discussion: In your teams, talk about the main points of the following issues. Designate a “Team Speaker” to share with the rest of the class after 2 minutes: Conversational Discourse & Teaching Pronunciation (Team 1) Accuracy and Fluency & Affective Factors (Team 2) The Interaction Effect & Questions about Intelligibility (Team 3) Spoken Corpora & Genres of Spoken Language (Team 4) WHAT MAKES SPEAKING DIFFICULT?
Clustering – fluent speech is phrasal Redundancy-speaker can make meaning
clearer Reduced Forms – contractions, reduced vowels, elisions, etc. Performance Variables- hesitations, pauses, backtracking, corrections, fillers Colloquial Language- Rate of Delivery –acceptable speed Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation – patterns convey messages Interaction – conversational negotiation with interlocutors Imitative TYPES of SPEAKING Intensive Responsive Transactional-dialogue Interpersonal-dialogue Extensive-monologue Focus on both fluency and accuracy
Provide motivating techniques
Talk about self (Elliot)
Learner-learner interaction (Bruce)
Encourage authentic language use
Talking robots (Melody)
High-quality input=better language output (Meijing)
Provide feedback & correction
Understanding of own English proficiency (Shu Xue)
Keep objective in mind (Allie) PRINCIPLES for TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS Capitalize on link between speaking & listening
Teach by conversation (Laura)
Practiced “fake” responses + lack of choice = killed listening connection (Hallie)
Provide opportunities to initiate oral communication
Connection with willingness to communicate, self-confidence, & self-efficacy (Alice)
Maximize output and Preparation for spontaneous communication (Amanda)
Encourage development of speaking strategies
Pragmatics, subtleties of conversation starters, fillers, hesitation strategies (Joao)
Effective weapon (Holly) PRINCIPLES for TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS Directions: Have a “conversation” with your team explaining the following techniques. Also talk about what you have used, observed, or would like to use on teaching conversation techniques. (2 minutes) Please designate a different “Group Speaker” and be ready to share with the whole class. TEACHING CONVERSATION Indirect (DL) Direct (Team 1) Transactional (Team 2) Meaningful Oral Grammar (Team 3) Individual Practice (Team 4) Other Techniques??? (ALL) Directions: Turn to your partner and talk about how you would deal with the following factors that affect pronunciation. (2 minutes)
Native Language- T’s familiarity w/ Ss’ L1 helps with diagnosing Ss difficulties
Age- pre-puberty= “sounding native-like”, post-puberty= “foreign accent.
Exposure- quality & intensity is important
Innate phonetic ability- “ear” or “knack” for language
Identity & language ego- positive attitude & awareness of emerging second identity
Motivation & good pronunciation- intrinsic motivation key factor in improving pronunciation TEACHING PRONUNCIATION Directions: With a partner, explain which technique you have used or observed or would like to use that are similar to the following. Or, describe a different technique you have used. Be prepared to share with the class (2 minutes) TEACHING PRONUNCIATION
TECHNIQUES Listening for pitch changes Stress-Contrasting nouns Meaningful minimal pairs Others??? When & How
When: no simple answer
global vs. local errors
How: Basic Options Possible Features Vigil & Oller’s model (1976) Feedback FORM & ERROR TREATMENT Imitative Speaking Evaluating & Scoring
Beginning Intermediate Advance:
(comprehension) Item Types & Tasks ASSESSING SPEAKING Intensive Speaking Responsive Speaking Interactive Speaking Extensive Speaking