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The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Transcript of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Angela O'Donnell Geography The Slave Narratives Free states:
California, Iowa, Ohio, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Vermont, Maine, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire Slave States:
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware States Bordering Mississippi River:
Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota 1) 2) 3) Grant Aina and Laura Hinojos Sojourner Truth Background Information Born as Isabella Baumfree, Sojourner
Truth would later be recognized as one of the most influential human rights activist in reform movements. Because she was born into slavery, her life initially consisted entirely of tending to a New York estate owned by a Dutch American. It was not until 1827 that Sojourner abandoned the oppressing life of slavery and metamorphosed into a preacher by the reestablished name of Sojourner Truth. Truth began to emerge as a prominent activist in the 1850's. It was during the Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio in 1851 where she delivered her famous speech, "Ain't I a woman?" Sojourner Truth's famous speech, "Ain't I a Woman?" features the assumed delicate and defenseless existence of women. Moreover, Truth conveys the levels of oppression and injustice faced by the black female population, which is ultimately manifold. She describes how women are considered fragile and powerless through the eyes of men, yet she herself is subject to their harm. She "bear[s] the lash" and "work[s] as much ...as a man" yet still she is a woman. Through her speech, she brought awareness to the masses regarding the lack of equality faced by women, though more specifically, women oppressed by the burden of slavery. Though her speech did not instantaneously change the rights of oppressed populations, she was successful in gaining the attention of a significant amount of people. For instance, she was "received in the White House by President Abraham Lincoln." In short, she raised awareness to the masses and gained the attention of significant authority figures. "Ain't I a Woman?" In comparison to the novel, there appears to be a definite parallelism in regards to the treatment of women in the midst of inequality.
In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the roles of the women seem to be nothing more important than being caregivers. Huckleberry's main caregiver, Widow Douglas, is a gentle and passive character who is incredibly forgiving. On the other hand, Miss Watson is strong-willed and strict. Thus, the idea of unequal treatment towards women is verified through the idea that the strong-willed woman (Miss Watson) is unmarried, whereas the delicate and submissive woman (Widow Douglas) was. In addition, the two women seem to possess no other purpose in life beyond caring for Huckleberry Finn and civilizing him. In regards to the roles of women before equality, the sole established job was to care for the household and children. The role of women in the reform movements and in the novel Africans and their Descendants In America, the majority of slaves were third, fourth and even fifth-generation descendants of original African slaves. As a consequence, they were for the most part disconnected from their African heritage. making them easily influenced by Western culture, especially Christianity. Slavery and Morale All slaves were expected to submit to the demands of their masters. Some did just that, but many silently rebelled against their masters. This resistance took the form of prayer, education and socializing, all in a clandestine manner. Some brave souls even dared to escape. Those who did were either caught and murdered or lived with caution. Slavery, which had initially begun as a financial endeavor, was a hot topic in regards to morality and necessity. White opinions on slavery erupted into civil war, and the secession of the South from the rest of the US.
Slavery would from then on alter the white perspective of blacks. Many slaveowners resented the slaves for their refusal to be submissive, and passed this resentment on to their children. This is the beginning of segregation in America. The White Man and His Slaves With slavery still prospering in America, many laws were still in place holding African American men and women as property to their master. One of these laws was the Dred Scott decision. Since it denied enslaved or even freed slaves to gain U.S. citizenship, acknowledging enslaved or free slaves as free men would be impossible without the removal of the Dred Scott decision. ("1800s-1850s: Expansion of slavery in the U.S.") Recognition of enslaved men and women as free men and women Cite page "slave states (grey), free states (red), and U.S. territories (green)"
("1800s-1850s: Expansion of slavery in the U.S.") Role of women during reform movements Women during reform movements usually advocated for their rights along with improvements in education, help for the mentally ill, temperance, prison conditions, working conditions, and anti-slavery movements. Slave laws before and after the Civil War Before: After: Slaves were thought of as property and could be traded or sold. They had no rights because they were not thought of as citizens. Masters had full control them. Women saw themselves in the same condition of slaves: expected to remain obedient and quiet to their master/husband. As lower-class women found work as teachers, they quickly became educated allowing them to question their inferior position as women and allowing them to join together to petition for their rights. Furthermore, it was the lower-class women who were forced into jobs in factories. With low pay and long hours, the women were finally starting multitudes of petitions and rallies advocating women's rights. Quotes: Prop. XII "Slavery is hereditary and perpetual"
Prop VI. "The slave, being personal chattel, is at all times liable to be sold absolutely, or mortgaged or leased, at the will of his master" Ex-slaves were given more rights such as attending schools, and voting. However, the addition of "Black Codes" in many southern states controlled their rights. They were forced to stay in the agricultural side for work unless they paid a tax or if schools found children needed new guardians because ex-slaves were unable to care for them they could be sent to their old slave masters. How a free state or slave state was determined The Missouri Compromise helped determine the state. It had 2 parts:
1. With Maine joining the Union and Missouri becoming a slave state it equaled to 12 slave and 12 free states
2. A line created at the 36 degree and any portion north of the Louisiana territory would be free The Aspects of Slavery by abolitionists and freed slaves Abolitionists Freed Slaves William Lloyd Garrison Garrison was a powerful abolitionist where he was able to publish the anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator. He also co-founded the national American Anti-Slavery Society, where he argued how the constitution was a pro-slavery document and they were in need for a new government against slavery. Female characters in:
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Harriet Beecher Stowe Fredrick Douglas Elizabeth Cady Stanton Background Information As a run away slave, Douglas knew the life of a slave leading him to fight for the end of slavery. When Douglas barely began to speak his opinion on slavery he was quickly made an agent for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. This lead Douglas to a powerful path of being an abolitionist, from advising President Lincoln on the civil war and his soldiers to having his own biography, called Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglas. . I Sojourner Truth Truth had become a powerful abolitionist against slavery during her life as a public speaker. She had been born into slavery but freed in 1827. It was in this time that she tried her best to rid of slavery. Although Truth had been illiterate all her life it was through her powerful public speaking that she made an impact. Thrust into the world of reform movements, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, born in 1815, lived with anti-slavery and women's rights movements continually surrounding her and interfusing with her life. Having a cousin host fugitive slaves and even marrying her husband through his participation in anti-slavery movements, it was inevitable that she would become a figurehead for the woman's rights movement. She, along with Lucretia Mott, Martha Coffin Wright, Jane Hunt, and Mary Ann M'Clintock, decided and planned the first woman's rights convention. She wrote the "Declaration of Sentiments" with Matilda Joslyn Gage.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton died in 1902 before women suffrage was accepted in the United States. http://kpbs.media.clients.ellingtoncms.com/img/photos/2010/09/30/godinamerica-douglas_t614.jpg?a3ca5463f16dc11451266bb717d38a6025dcea0e http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_KdcWntyPmeg/TUwjbb94iQI/AAAAAAAAA88/SUWoqsoDlnw/s1600/Photo+of+Sojourner+Truth.jpg http://img.tfd.com/WEAL/weal_05_img0853.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons
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Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://img.tfd.com/WEAL/weal_05_img0853.jpg>. "Declaration of Sentiments" Written in the same format as the "Declaration of Independence" where the colonists protested the grievances caused by the king of England, the "Declaration of Sentiments" was written to protest the grievances or inequalities brought by men on women. Changing the original's declaration to "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men and women are created equal," it ensures women the promise of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." The Declaration even includes a list of man's grievances toward women such as "He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise" and "He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns." "1800s-1850s: Expansion of slavery in the U.S." MSNBC.com. The American Anthropological Association , n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24714472/ns/us_news-gut_check/t/s-s-expansion-slavery-us/>. Nation Park Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/wori/historyculture/the-first-womens-rights-convention.htm>.
Equality for all? Truth's speech "Ain't I a Woman?" brings up a critical point not only for the women's rights movement but also for the abolitionist movement: who exactly should receive the same equality as white men? White women are being advocated in the women's rights movements and black men are being advocated for the abolitionist movement, yet where does black women fit in it all? If they are given the same status as white women to vote then what about the black men? Sojourner Truth's speech confronts the issue that she is a women yet is treated just as a black man is, without any respect as a human being. The underlying message is not to set in "black and white" who is eligible to be superior but to instead treat everyone, whether black or white, man or woman, with equal respect.