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Transcript of Chapter 3
Reproduction of Organisms
Asexual Reproduction is the production of offspring by one parent without sperm or egg joining. There are many different ways of a sexual reproduction. There is fission, mitotic cell division, budding, plant cutting, regeneration, and cloning. Some advantages that asexual reproduction has is that it only needs one parent. Some disadvantages are the lack of genetic variation. That means that few individuals will survive a change in the environment.
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Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis
All plants have two life stages called generations. They have a diploid generation and haploid generation. If you look at a tree or flower the plant is in its diploid generation. The daughter cell makes from haploid structures are called
. Spores grow by mitosis and cell division to make the haploid generation of a plant. A
forms from tissue in a male reproductive structure of a seedless plant. When pollen grains land on a female reproductive structure of a plant that is the same species as the pollen grains pollination occurs. The female reproductive structure of a seedless plant continues one or more ovules. A haploid egg developed inside of each ovule. Following pollination, sperm enter the ovule and fertilization occurs. A seed develops from the ovule after fertilization. It consists of an embryo of food supply and a protective covering. The embryo is an immature diploid plants that developed from a zygote. Most plants plants you see around you are angiosperms. Fruits and vegetables come from angiosperms. The male reproductive organ of a flower is the stamen. Pollen grains from at the tip of the stamen in a structure called anther. The filament is a long stalk that supports the anther and connect it to the base of the flower. The female reproductive organ of a flower is the pistil. At the tip of the pistil is the stigma. where pollen can land. The stigma is at the top of a long tube called the style. At the base of the style is the ovary. A pollen tube grows from the pollen grain into the stigma down the style to the ovary at the base of the pistil. The ovary and sometimes other parts of he flower will developed into a fruit that contains one or more seeds.
tacks place when two genetic materials combine. Half of it is the
. The other is
. When a sperm cell and an egg cell fuse together, it is called
The new cell is the
from certain reproductive cells in an organism. There is both a meiosis 1 and a
2. The phrases of meiosis 1 are Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1 and Telophase 1. Meiosis 2 includes Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2 and Telophase 2.
Animals often have external physical features that distinguish males from females. Males have reproductive gonads called testes that produce sperm. Females have reproductive gonads called ovaries that produce eggs. Sexual reproduction requires fertilization which is the fusion of a haploid egg cell and haploid sperm cell. Internal fertilization occurs inside the body. This ensures that an embryo will be protected and nourished until it leaves the female body. External fertilization occurs outside of the body. A female will lay eggs and the male will later fertilize them. The female usually lays many eggs to increase the chances of fertilization and survival. With external fertilization the eggs are exposed to predators. Frogs reproduce by external fertilization where other fish can come and the eggs before they have had a chnce to hatch. Cows, dogs and humans reproduce by internal fertilization.