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Increase in Bone Calcium Stores

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Augustas Romanovas

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Increase in Bone Calcium Stores

Unit 2: The Physiology of Fitness
Assignment 2: Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Body Systems
Targeting: P3, P4 and M2
Miss Crawford
Augustas Romanovas

Increased Thickness of Hyaline Cartilage
The Hyaline is the most common type of cartilage in our bodies and is found on the surfaces of bones. This helps us to protect them from wearing and tearing. The hyaline cartilage also allows us to absorb shock and force in sports, e.g. when landing from a jump. The cartilage becomes thicker and thicker with regular and continuous exercise.
Training: Continuous and regular exercise will allow our cartilages to become thicker, e.g. regular long-distance running or squatting.
Advantages in Sports:
In
Basketball,
the players are jumping up and down regularly, whether it is to shoot, block or rebound the ball. If the thickness of the players' hyaline cartilage are increased, it will allow the knees of the players to absorb the shock and force that is caused by the landing of the jump. This is an advantage, as there is a reduced possibility of injury, e.g. broken/dislocated knee when landing back down on the floor. The thickness of the cartilage assures safety when landing in basketball.
Gymnasts
also benefit from an increased thickness of hyaline cartilage. As being professional gymnasts, they perform a lot of moves such as back flips or tumbles that require a safe and flawless landing. The increased thickness of the cartilage allows them to land and possibly recover from undertaking difficult moves, such as multiple flips. This is an advantage as Form and Technique is critical in this sport, so the increased hyaline cartilage thickness will allow them to move to another move straight after the other, as they will have a greater chance of landing safely, flawlessly and also with Technique. This reduces the chances of injury. Goalkeepers usually and jump at the height, or even higher, than a football net, depending on the shot that was taken by the opponent. Often is the case when they have to stretch and jump up into the top corner of the net. An increased thickness of the hyaline cartilage will allow them to land safely and will provide them with more balance when they land from difficult saves, such as penalty shots. Balance and safety of their landings is the key for goalkeepers that must be met, because it will make the goalkeeper more efficient, i.e. save more shots. This increases the chances of winning, as a goalkeeper is more likely to keep a clean sheet in a football match.

Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Lactic acid is produced as a waste product and the limiting factor of exercise. It causes fatigue after we perform vigorous exercises, e.g. Marathons. Our muscles become stimulated to become more intolerant to lactic acid, as a result of long term exercise. The body and muscles become more efficient at clearing away the lactic acid from our system. The intolerance to lactic acid causes our capillary networks to extend. This allows a greater supply of blood to the working muscles, providing oxygen and nutrients so our muscles have enough energy during exercise. As an energy source, our muscles use Fats we consume to use while undertaking sports. Muscles also make better use of oxygen, as it allows the body to work at a higher intensity, for longer, without fatiguing.
Training: Continuous running in our lives will allow our bodies and muscles to become more intolerant to lactic acid. By doing this, our bodies become more efficient at getting of the lactic acid, which in case, would cause fatigue. As a result, it allows us to do long and continuous activities or sports.
Advantages in Sports: An increase tolerance to Lactic acid is greatly beneficial to
1500M
racers and
Marathon
runners. These type of athletes must be durable and able to carry on the whole length of the race. This means they need a greater supply of oxygen and an increase in their tolerance to lactic acid. Lactic acid causes athletes to Fatigue and is a waste product of general exercise. An increased tolerance to lactic acid is a benefit to these athletes because their bodies become more efficient in getting rid of Lactic acid from their bodies, which in most cases, would cause them to Fatigue during the race. By increasing the tolerance to lactic acid, they are able to run the whole length of the race. Also, the muscles of the athlete begin to use fat as their energy source in order to further contract, allowing more movement and running. This is also an advantage because it allows them to keep running, even if the athletes have a shortage of oxygen, their muscles may use body fat stores as an energy fuel.
Increase in Bone Calcium Stores
As a result of long term exercise, the bones in our bodies become
stronger
. Due to this, mineral stores also increase in our bodies. Our bones are strengthened as a result of the stress that is placed on them by exercise. All of this results in greater quantities of collagen and calcium stored within our bones. The main protein of connective tissue is Collagen.
This reduces the risk of
Osteoporosis
- A characterized disease by a change in the structure of the bone and the loss of mass of the bone. The poor structure of the bone will result in it being brittle and weak. This increases the risk of fractures of the bone.
The
supportive connective tissue that our joints are surrounded by, are also strengthened because of calcium.
Advantages in sports: An increase in Bone Calcium is an advantage in
Rugby.
For most of the game, the players will most likely collide with each other frequently, fighting for the ball. The increase in bone calcium gives their bones strength. To do so, the players must have strong bones to absorb shocks from the force of other players or simply enforce strength to push opponents away from teammates. This is an advantage in sports because you have more chance of fighting the ball back for your team because your bones are stronger, so you are able to apply more strength onto the running, colliding and throwing the ball. This increases the chances of winning because if your team is able to keep possession of the ball, it is more likely to score.
An increase in Bone Calcium is also beneficial for football players. It is likely for the players to collide, nudge and slide tackle all game long because they are fighting for the possession of the ball. The increase in Bone Calcium give their bones more strength so they are able to kick the ball harder, with the combined strength of the muscles and the bones of the leg. Furthermore, the increase in bone calcium gives their bones strength so they can withstand the shock or the damage of a slide tackle, which usually end up in a really bad tackle. This increases the chances of winning, because you are able to not get injured as easy, so you are able to carry on the full game.

Increased Stretch of Ligaments
Bones are connected to other bones in our body by our Ligaments. Regular exercise will improve and increase the flexibility and strength of Ligaments.
Increased Production of Synovial Fluid
Increased Aerobic and anaerobic enzymes
Training:
A few of the best methods of training for flexibility are
stretches
and
Yoga
. This will increase flexibility and strength of ligaments. This reduces the risk of
injury
during sports.
Advantages in Sports:
Gymnasts
greatly benefit from an increase stretch of ligaments. Most Gymnasts perform Yoga or at least some of stretching. This makes their muscles become stretchy and ready to undertake exercise. Because their muscles become stretchy, it allows them to perform difficult stances or moves that require flexible movements, such as multiple back flips. If the muscles of the Gymnasts are stretched and prepared properly, it will allow them to perform very well, increase their variety of performing complex moves and increase the chance of winning against their opponents.
The increase in stretch of ligaments is also essential for
Netball players
. Netball players must be flexible enough to reach/dive for balls that are hit with great power and speed, so their defense will be greatly improved, as the opponents will have a hard time scoring, by hitting the ball on your side of the court. They also need to be flexible enough to hit the ball at a great vertical distance that will be provided by the teammates. The increased stretch of ligaments will allow them to jump higher that their opponents, and stretch their arm as far as possible, vertically, in order to hit the ball, in a way, that it does not get blocked and hits the opponents' side of the court. This increases the chances of winning a Netball match.
An increase in stretch of ligaments is also crucial for
Long Jump athletes.
Because their Ligaments can stretch further, it allows them to stretch their legs further so they can land their foot as close to the line as possible, without crossing it. This will allow them to jump further than other athletes because their legs can stretch further and become more flexible during the jump. This allows them to land their feet as far as possible, and increasing the chances of beating other atheletes.
After exercise, hypertrophy makes our muscles increase in strength and size. Targeting muscle cells, the contractile proteins within the cells of a muscle can contract more and also with more force. This helps with activities and sports which require resistance strength, e.g. Swimming - This sport will target Deltoids in the shoulder and also biceps to become stronger, in order to swim through the resistance of the water more efficiently and faster than other opponents. Males in particular, have more potential for their muscles to increase in size and strength because they have greater testostorone levels than women.
Training:
To increase Hypertrophy, different exercises and trainings that are long and continuous are required:
Weightlifting, Body weight exercises, press ups/pull ups.
Advantages in Sports:
Because hypertrophy helps us to move through resistance,
Swimming
is one example where hypertrophy is very useful. if a swimmer lifts weights, they would have an increase in strength and muscle size, which would allow them to swim through the water faster, with greater force. This is because,
in muscle cells there are contractile proteinss within the cells of a muscle. This gives our muscles the ability to contract more.
This is an advantage, as having greater resistance to water will allow them to swim faster and over-take their opponents and increase the chances of winning.
Hypertrophy is also beneficial to
100M sprint racers
. An increased size and strength of the sprinters' leg muscles such as quadriceps, will allow them to run faster because they have stronger and bigger muscles that allow more contraction. Doing leg exercises such as squats, will allow them to increase the size and the strength of their muscles. This will increase their chances of winning the race, as they are able to run faster than their opponents.
Athletes undertaking
Javelin Throw
will also benefit from Hypertrophy. If the athletes do exercises that will increase the size and strength of their Bicep muscles, such as weightlifting, they will have a better outcome in sports, e.g. Throw the javelin further, faster and with more power. This is because their strength in the bicep muscles has increased in size and strength, allowing their muscles to contract more and throw the javelin further than their opponents
Increase in Tendon Strength
Tendons are tough and flexible fibrous band tissue. It is a structure in the body that connects muscles to the bones. Ligaments in our bodies join bone to bone. The fibrous tissue of tendons has a poor blood flow, so blood delivers nutrients to different tissues, however, the waste products such as Carbon Dioxide, do not get removed efficiently as in stronger tissues such as muscle. Tendons allow us to do our daily, simple movements such as walking, and different sports. With exercise, the tendons in our bodies become stronger and this allows our muscles to contract more easily. An increase in Tendon Strength allows us to perform different moves in a sport, as well as stretching our limbs further to maximize the potential performance of an individual.
Training:
Undertaking long-distance running will help to increase tendon strength in our bodies. Running will put our muscles under pressure and they are constantly prepared for any exercises or stretches that involve the use of Tendon Strength, e.g. in football, to kick the ball harder.
Advantages in Sports:
An increase in Tendon Strength is essential for Gymnasts. It allows them to stretch their limbs further while performing difficult moves or positions, such as back flips. Tendon strength can also benefit them in terms of actual strength, e.g. when holding a stationary stance, e.g hand-stand. These factors will allow them to reach their full potential in performances as an increase in tendon strength gives them a new variety of moves that they are able to undertake. It can also improve their technique and how to execute different positions, because their muscles are more used to contracting with regular pressure. This increases their chances of winning.
In Football, Goalkeepers will perform better if they were to train and further increase their Tendon Strength. because their limps will stretch further, the Goalkeepers are more likely to reach the ball that is shot in an uncomfortable and challenging place of the net, such as a top right corner. This will allow them to save more shots on target because their muscles are prepared to contract in very fast situations, e.g. a corner kick from the offense. This increases the chances of winning, or at least drawing the match, as the keeper will save many shots and this way, it is easier to achieve a clean sheet.
Netball players would also tend to increase their tendon strength. With the further stretch of their limbs, they are able to reach for the ball when it is hit very hard, sharp and fast, aimed straight at the court. This will allow them to prevent the ball from hitting the ground and saving their team from a loss. In addition, an increase in tendon strength will allow the players to hit the ball harder at a higher point, in a way, that it does not get blocked. This is because they are able to stretch their limbs further, and apply power onto the ball when it is hit, because of the muscles contracting in their arm, e.g. biceps.

Increase in myoglobin stores, no. of Mitochondria and increased storage of glycogen and fat
Oxygen is stored in Myoglobin. These are found in the cells of the muscle and they bind oxygen to the tissues and also provides oxygen to muscles, to release energy and a waste product, Carbon Dioxide. Mitochondria are the power stations of our cells and provide us with energy during exercise. They are found in body cells and the levels of Mitochondria can be increased by undertaking long-term exercises, e.g. running long distances such as 1500M. The increase of Mitochondria levels mean that we are provided with more energy during exercise, so we are able to sustain ourselves throughout the duration, because our muscles are provided with more oxygen and energy, so they are able to contract more without using so much of oxygen. Glycogen sugar is stored and produced in the liver. Glycogen sugars are another source of energy that is used by our contracting muscles during exercise. These are also achieved by continuous training, such as running. We get our energy from consuming food. Without it, we are not able to function properly during exercise, as there is not a lot of fat and energy provided for the body to sustain itself and use it as a fuel. As result of the consumption of food, we are able to give our whole body energy so our muscles can contract more in sports. All these factors increase the supply of high energy molecule;ATP.
Training: Long term and continuous training such as long-distance running and cycling will allow athletes to have an increase in myoglobin stores and no. of Mitochondria.
Advantages in Sports: 1500M racers greatly benefit from this. Because their working muscles, such as quadriceps and hamstrings, are provided with more energy in the muscle tissues, they are able to carry on and last the whole of the race. This is because the provided energy that has been increased allows the working muscles to contract more and with more force. This is beneficial, as the racers must run the whole length of 1500M, keeping up with their opponents and constantly running. This increases the chances of winning, as if there is a lot of ATP and myoglobin in our muscle tissues, they can be provided with even more energy which allows further contraction of the muscles. This means that you can keep running for longer and faster.
Football players would also benefit from this factor. The whole match lasts around 90 minutes. In order to sustain and carry on the full length of the game, these athletes must to a lot of long term training in order to have greater levels of myoglobin and no. of Mitochondria stores. This will mean that their muscles will be provided with more energy molecules, including ATP, so that their muscles can contract more throughout the game. This means that the players can run and sprint more efficiently than their opponents if chasing the ball because their muscles are constantly contracting. This can also mean that they can kick the ball harder so that the enemy goalkeeper can have less reaction time, increasing the chances of winning because the chances of scoring have been increased. This is because the working muscles such as quadriceps are provided with more energy so they can contract more.
Increased Muscle Strength
An overload of exercise causes an increase in muscle size and strength. This can be achieved by increasing the duration and the intensity of a continuous exercise, e.g. weightlifting. It can also be increased by increasing the number of repetitions and sets of an exercise, as the muscles are working for a longer duration, and at a higher intensity. In case of resistance training, muscle strength can be increased by using additional weight to perform the exercise.
Training:
Muscle strength is mainly trained by weightlifting and resistance machines. This improves and increases the strength of our muscles which is required in a sport where the athlete is working under resistance, e.g. swimming, to swim faster through water.
Advantages in Sports
: An increase in Muscle Strength is greatly beneficial to
Weightlifters.
These athletes must lift heavier and heavier weights, repeatedly, in order to beat their opponents. The increase in muscle strength will allow them to lift the heavy bar upwards because their muscles have grown in size and strength, allowing to do so. This increases the chances of winning because the muscle strength will allow you to lift heavier weights than your opponent.
An increase in Muscle Strength also benefits
Tennis
players. Because they have been undertaking resistance training, such as resistance weight machines or swimming, it allows their muscles to become greater in size and strength. This is why they are able to last through out the whole game of Tennis, because their muscles have adapted to the continuous contraction, i.e Hitting the ball with the bat constantly. This is an advantage because it allows the players to hit the ball with more force because their muscles have grown in size and strength. This increases the chances of winning because the opponents have less time to react to hit the ball back, because athletes are able to hit the ball very hard.

Cardiac Hypertrophy
Long term exercise causes our hearts to increase in strength. Just like any other muscle, the heart becomes stronger and stronger as a result of exercise. This is because the Left ventricles thickens, cause the increase of strength of the heart's contractions. As a result, more blood is pumped around the body per beat of the heart (Increase in Stroke Volume). The increase in Cardiac Hypertrophy means that muscles can be provided with more blood, oxygen and nutrients while performing sports.
Training: Long term exercise will increase Cardiac Hypertrophy, such as long distance running, e.g. Marathons. This will make our hearts stronger, and pump more blood with fewer beats.
Advantages in Sports: Cardiac Hypertrophy is an advantage for athletes in many sports. Football players have to be durable, in order to last the whole duration of the match, as well as including the sprinting, kicking and tackling. Cardiac Hypertrophy will provide them with this, because it provides more blood to the working muscles, such as Gastrocnemius which are mainly used for running. Because the blood supply is higher for the muscles because of cardiac hypertrophy, it will provide the muscles with oxygen as well as nutrients which allow an increase in number of contractions of the muscle. As a result, the players will be able to run faster, longer and tackle the opponents with more effectiveness.
Cardiac Hypertrophy is also very beneficial for Basketball players. Muscles of the player's are provided with more blood due to cardiac hypertrophy. This is because the heart pumps more blood per beat, causing the working muscles such as quadriceps and biceps to have a greater supply of oxygen, and nutrients. This will cause the muscles to contract more with greater force so that the players can pass, shoot and run more efficiently and effectively. This increases the chances of winning, as keeping possession of the ball makes it more likely for you to win.
The joints in our bodies stimulate the secretion of Synovial fluid when the joints undertake movement. With regular exercise, the synovial fluid becomes less viscous (thicker) because the movement at our joints has been increased.
Training:
Continuous Training such as long distance running, allows our joints to be provided with and have more synovial fluid. As a result, we are able to move and exercise further with greater force.
Advantage in Sports: A game of
Tennis
usually takes relatively long. In some cases it is up to 2-3 hours. If the tennis players undertake continuous exercise, e.g. long distance running, then the synovial fluid in their joints will become less viscous. The fluid will allow them to run, play and hit the ball constantly and for a longer duration because their joints are able to go through more force and movement. This will allow their joints to be durable during the whole of the game, so, they can play for longer. This increases the chances of winning, as the longer their in the game, the more chance they will have of coming back into the game if they are losing.
Athletes that undertake
Swimming
, will also benefit from the increased production of synovial fluid. Because their joints will move easier, more and with greater force, it will allow them to swim faster and quicker through the resistance of the water. This is because they synovial fluid is less viscous, so their joints can undertake more movement and exercise, and also at a greater force. This increases the chances of winning as the synovial fluid becomes less thicker, so some swimmers may swim faster than others depending on their training.
The increased production of Synovial fluid can also benefif
Dancers
. As professional dancers, their joints must have greater levels of viscous synovial fluid, as they might perform different and difficult moves that will get them a very high score. Furthermore, their dancing must look Aesthetically pleasing. This means that their performance must look appropriate and pleasing in terms of Technique, execution and general performance. This increases the chances of winning, as some dancers may look more aesthetically pleasing than others and that will get them a higher score from the judges.


As a result of long-term exercise, it brings a number of cellular changes which enhances the muscle tissues to create
ATP
, a molecule that is high in
Energy
. An increase in size of mitochondria is a cellular adaptation which usually increases the enzymes of the Aerobic System. A combination of these changes provides us with reasons as to why the training of an athlete is prolonged periods of training as a result of long-term continuous and regular training. Changes are also undertaken by the Anaerobic energy system. This includes enzymes to increase which control the anaerobic phase of the breakdown of the glucose in our bodies.
Training: Continuous training will increase the aerobic and anaerobic levels of enzymes produced, e.g. long distance running/sprinting.
60-80% of heart rate should work for only 20-30minutes of exercise. Anaerobic training: Interval training (Sprint, then the rest period)
Advantages in Sports: Because muscle tissues produce more of ATP, it is an advantage in 100M sprint race. The high energy molecule, ATP, allows the athletes to run a lot faster in this anaerobic activity. The increase in the size of Mitochondria also provides them with a lot of energy, which is also used for the athletes to run at their optimum level/speed. This is an advantage because it allows an athlete to run faster than other opponents, because their working muscles such as quadriceps have an increase in energy, due to an increase in ATP and size of mitochondria. This allows the muscles to contract more, allowing more movement. This increases the chances of winning because you are able to run faster than other opponents, because of your muscles are contracting more than others'.
An increase in aerobic and anaerobic exercise is also an advantage in Sports like Tennis. A match of tennis can take up very long, if the scores are really close. The increase in aerobic enzymes allows the tennis players to keep moving and contracting their working muscles, such as biceps and quadriceps because they have an increase in energy. The energy given to them allows the muscles to contract, which allow the tennis players to carry on playing, even if the match is into a long period of time, like 2-3 hours. It also allows them to hit the ball harder with the bat, as their biceps will be provided with a lot of energy. This means the muscle will contract more, allowing the player to hit the ball really hard. This is an advantage because if the ball is hit very hard, the reaction time of the opponent is reduced, causing them to be late to reach for the ball.
Increased use of Fats as an Energy System
When we undertake low intensity exercise, our bodies use fat as its main source of energy. The combustion of Fat powers almost every exercise, at approximately 25% of aerobic power. If exercise that we undertake extends to long periods, Fat Oxidation increases, as Glycogen levels deplete. With long-term effects of exercise taken into consideration, a trained or an elite athlete has a greater opportunity to use burn and to use fat as their source of energy, rather than a non-trained athlete, or a non-exercising individual.
Training: Continuous training such as long-distance running will make more use of the fat stores in our bodies to use as energy during exercise. This makes athletes Lean,e.g. goalkeepers, 1,500M racers and gymnasts have to be lean and agile in order to perform difficult stances/moves. Leaner means you have less weight to carry around in activities like Marathon running, will slow the individual down.
Advantages in Sports: An increase in use of Fats as an energy System is an advantage in Basketball. This is because the game length of Basketball is usually around 40 minutes. In order for the players to be full of fuel (energy) they may need an alternative source of energy other than oxygen, which is the Fat storage in the body. The combustion of fat powers their bodies in activities like shooting, running and blocking. This is an advantage because in order to play at their optimum level, the energy from the combustion of fat will allow this because it provides energy to the working muscles, such as gastrocnemius, biceps and triceps. It also powers all exercise.
This is also an advantage in Gymnastics. Gymnasts must be physically lean to perform various moves, such as multiple back flips and tumbles and they must also be agile. Being Lean means that you have less weight to carry around during sports like these. So, if an individual has a lot of weight to carry around, it will slow them down and they will not be able to perform at their optimum level because they will be tired soon. This is an advantage because they fat burning process allows the Gymnasts to carry on performing difficult moves, stances and tumble which in most cases, a physically fat individual would not be able to do. This increases the chances of winning, as if you are leaner, you will look more aesthetically pleasing, which will make the judges give you a higher score than other opponents.
Increase in Stroke Volume
Stroke Volume (SV) is the volume of the blood that is pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each
Beat
. Stroke volume during rest has shown to be significantly higher after a prolonged endurance training programme. The muscles in our body are therefore provided with more blood per minute (Cardiac Output) during maximal levels of exercise. Because of this, the delivery of oxygen and nutrients is provided more efficiently to the working muscles, allowing them to further contract and with greater force during sports.
Training:
Continuous and long-term training enhances an increase in stroke volume during sports, such as long-distance running or swimming.
Advantages in Sports:
An increase in stroke volume is greatly beneficial to
Weightlifters
. Because the heart of the athletes pumps more blood per minute, it provides their working muscles such as biceps and triceps with a greater supply of oxygen and nutrients, via the pumped blood. This provides the muscles with energy, allowing them to contract and lift the bar upwards. An increase in stroke volume may also allow the athletes to lift up heavier weights than their opponents because their muscles are contracting more. This increases the chances of winning. An increase in stroke volume can also benefit Cyclists. Pedaling, especially up into a mountain or a hill, can get quite difficult after a prolonged duration. Stroke volume will provide their working muscles such as quadriceps and Gastrocnemius with energy, oxygen and nutrients from the blood that is increasingly being pumped per beat. This will allow the cyclists to pedal faster and also with a greater force because the increase in stroke volume means their quadriceps and gastrocnemius can contract more because of a greater blood supply. This increases the chances of winning, as some cyclists may fall behind while pedaling up into a steep slope.
Increase in Cardiac Output
Cardiac Output is the volume of blood that is being pumped by the heart in One Minute. Cardiac output levels increase during long-term exercise, because of an increase in Stroke Volume (Volume of blood being pumped by the heart per beat). Both Stroke volume and Cardiac output are increased due to an increase in Cardiac Hypertrophy. As individuals age and get older, their maximum cardiac levels decrease because of a decrease in their maximum heart rate.
Training: Continuous and Long-term training such as 1500M running or continuous swimming will enhance an increase in Cardiac Output.
Advantages in Sports: An increase in Cardiac Output is an advantage in Synchronized swimming. The athletes must hold their breath under water for a certain time. While that is taking place, they will perform various moves with their arms and legs to create a synchronized effect. Because of this, the athletes will sometimes have a shortage of breath, so, if Cardiac Output is increased, they will be able to perform underwater for longer because there is more blood being pumped every minute which then provides the working muscles such as hamstrings with nutrients and oxygen, so they can contract more. This is an advantage because the athletes will get a higher score from the judges if they perform difficult moves, while staying underwater for longer.
This is also an advantage in 300M hurdles. The athletes must run the whole of the course, while increasing speed as well as jumping over the hurdles. If there is an increase in Cardiac Output then the heart can pump more blood per minute. The increased supply of blood will provide the working muscles such as quadriceps, gastrocnemius and hamstrings with more oxygen and nutrients to allow more contraction, which means the athletes can run for longer and faster. This is an advantage because our muscles are provided with more blood and oxygen, they are able to contract more. This will increase the chances of winning, as we are able to run faster.
Decrease in Resting Heart rate
The resting heart rate of an individual reduces as a result of long-term exercise. This makes our hearts stronger, meaning it can pump and contract more in order to pump out more blood in each contraction (Increase in SV). As a result, our hearts do not have to beat as often, as we are provided with either more, or the same amount of blood anyway. A decrease in Resting heart rate will reduce workload on the heart and the rate will return to exercise more quickly. A decrease in resting heart rate also prevents incidents happening, such as stroke, angina or heart attack. Brady cardiac is Below 60 Beats Per minute.
Training: To decrease the resting heart rate, long and continuous exercise must be undertaken. This may include long-distance running, swimming and cycling. This will prevent heart attacks, angina and stroke,
Capillarisation
The development of the capillary network can be enhanced by Long-term exercise. As a result, the blood flow that our muscles receive is increased because the capillaries have increased in size and in the number of blood vessels. This allows our muscles to be provided with a more efficient supply of energy, oxygen and nutrients through the delivered blood that was pumped. This allows our muscles to contract more in sports. In capillaries and blood vessels, diffusion of gases takes place through the semi-permeable walls. This means that our system can get rid of gases such as Carbon Dioxide more efficiently and also Lactic acid which would cause fatigue.
Training: Continuous and long-term exercise will enhance the development of the capillary network, e.g. Marathon running, regular and continuous swimming.
Advantages in Sports: Due to the capillary network development, our muscles receive a greater flow of blood. This is an advantage in long distance swimming, e.g. 200M swimming race. The greater flow of blood provides the working muscles, such as biceps and deltoids with more blood. This allows these muscles to contract more and also against the force of resistance of the water. Because these muscles can contract more, it means the athlete is able to swim faster because the working muscles are provided with more energy, nutrients and oxygen. This increases the chances of winning because the athletes are able to swim faster than their opponents.
Capillarisation is also an advantage in Ice Hockey. The players must be on the move the whole game, whether it is skating, nudging the opponent or just simply shooting the puck. The capillarisation provides the players' working muscles such as quadriceps, biceps and triceps with a bigger flow of blood. This allows these muscles to contract more frequently and with a greater force. This is an advantage because the hockey players could shoot the puck harder, faster and with a greater because their biceps and triceps have more blood, which provides more oxygen, nutrients and energy to allow the contraction of their biceps and triceps. This increases the chances of winning, because the goalkeeper will have reduced reaction time because you are able to shoot the puck very hard and fast. Therefore, you have more chance of scoring.
Respiratory System
Increased Vital Capacity
Vital capacity is the maximum amount of oxygen an individual can expel, after maximum inspiration. The Vital Capacity of an individual can be increased by undertaking long-term exercise. Normally, our vital capacity is approximately 4800cm3. As a result, our working muscles in sports are provided with a more efficient supply of oxygen.
Training:
Long term and continuous training will enhance an increase in Vital Capacity. This can be achieved through long distance running, cycling or swimming
Advantages in Sports:
An increase in Vital Capacity will be greatly beneficial to any athlete performing an aerobic, continuous and long-term exercise/sport, such as Marathon running. Marathon runners need a huge supply of oxygen when competing against other racers. This is because the Marathon may last several hours and can go on for miles. Because of this, The increased vital capacity will allow them and their working muscles to be provided with a more efficient supply of oxygen, e.g. to the quadriceps and Gastrocnemius. This allows these muscles to contract more, as they are provided with more nutrients, energy and oxygen by the increase in Vital Capacity. This means they are able to run faster, and increase the chances of winning.
An increase in Vital Capacity can also be very beneficial to Boxers. Especially at the final rounds of the match, the boxers will become tired, out of oxygen and possibly aching. To be able to carry on fighting through out the time of each round, the boxers must have an increased supply of oxygen for the working muscles, such as Biceps and Deltoids. An increase in Vital Capacity will allow their muscles to be provided with a more efficient supply of oxygen, so, they are able to carry on hitting and fighting their opponent with more force, as their muscles are contracting because of the increased supply of nutrients and energy through the oxygen. This may increase the chances of winning, as a Boxer is more likely to hit an opponent hard enough, so that he is knocked out.

Increase in Minute Ventilation
Minute Ventilation is the volume of air that is inhaled, and exhaled in the space of one minute. Minute Ventilation is dependent on an individuals breathing rate and tidal volume. This value of Minute ventilation will increase as a result of Long-term exercises and sports due to an increased strength in our respiratory muscles. Our bodies also become better at removing Carbon Dioxide from the body.
Training:
Long-term and continuous training enhances the increase in Minute Ventilation, such as 1500M running, Swimming and Weightlifting.
Advantages in Sports: An increase in Minute Ventilation is an advantage in 50M swimming. During swimming, the athletes' will breathe every time they raise their head from under the water and exhale either when they raise their head again or simply under the water. If they are able to take in a lot of oxygen in the space of a minute, it can greatly boost their performance. The increased oxygen will supply the working muscles such as deltoids and quadriceps with nutrients and oxygen that is provided through the blood. This will allow theses muscles to contract and make it easier for them to overcome and swim through the resistance of water faster and easier. This is an advantage because if they are able to breathe in more oxygen than their opponents, then they will overtake them because their muscles are contracting more. This increases the chances of winning.
An increase in Minute Ventilation is also an advantage in Badminton. In this sport, athletes must cover the whole of the court. Otherwise, their opponents will score easily and they will lose, To prevent this, the athlete must breathe a lot of oxygen in a space of each minute. This will keep their working muscles such as biceps and quadriceps supplied with nutrients and oxygen through the blood. This allows the contraction of the muscle and the movement in general. This is an advantage because it allows the athlete to cover and run around the whole court, preventing the opponent from scoring because of your good positioning. You are also able to hit the shuttlecock harder and faster. This increases the chances of winning.


Increased Strength of Respiratory Muscles
The respiratory muscles in our body consists of a Diaphragm and Intercostal muscles. These muscles will eventually increase in strength if an individual participates in continuous, long-term exercises or sports. When these muscles become stronger in terms of strength, it allows the human body the expansion of chest cavity. As a result, we can breathe more air in a certain period of time. This allows our bodies to intake and to be provided with more oxygen to the working muscles. Our body also becomes more efficient in terms of breathing out more carbon-dioxide.
Training: Long-term and continuous exercises such as long distance running, 1500M, swimming 200M and cycling.
Advantages in Sports: An increase in strength of the respiratory muscles is an advantage in Shot put. If athletes are able to breathe in more air in a certain period of time, they will provide more energy and oxygen for the working muscles, such as biceps and triceps. This will allow the muscles to contract more, allowing the athlete to push the shot put away from their arm. This is an advantage because if the biceps and triceps are provided with more oxygen, they will be able to push the shot put as far as they can because their muscles are able to contract more frequently. This will allow them to improve their results and throw further than other athletes. This increases the chances of winning.
An increase in strength of the respiratory muscles is also beneficial in Long Jump. If athletes are able to breathe in as much oxygen as they can on the run-up before the jump, then their working muscles such as quadriceps, gastrocnemius and hamstrings will be provided with more oxygen, allowing them to contract while they run. This allows them to jump as high as well as as far as they can, stretching their legs so they can land as far as possible. This is an advantage as these athletes will get the best results they can, by stretching as far as possible to reach a far destination. Because of this, it increases the chances of winning because you will be able to jump further than other athletes if the increase in strength of the respiratory muscles are higher than theirs
Increase in Oxygen Diffusion Rate
An increase in oxygen diffusion rate is caused by the result of long term exercise that is undertaken by an individual. This allows the working muscles to be provided with a more efficient delivery of oxygen which can be diffused to the working muscles. The Alveoli and the capillaries are the parts of the body where diffusion takes place. As a result, our bodies have a greater ability to remove and get rid of Carbon Dioxide more efficiently.
Training: Long term and continuous training will enhance an increase in oxygen diffusion rate, such as long and continuous distance running and swimming.
Advantages in Sports: An increase in Oxygen diffusion rate is an advantage in long and continuous exercise or sports, such as
1500M and Marathon running.
Athletes must have a greater and a more efficient of oxygen supply to their working muscles such as quadriceps and gastrocnemius. This way, these muscles are provided with higher levels of nutrients, energy and oxygen because the supply of blood is more efficient. Also, our body becomes more efficient at clearing away Carbon dioxide from our bodies so we are able to perform at our maximal level because our body adapts to these changes. This way, athletes are able to overtake their opponents in either 1500M race or a Marathon because their muscles are able to contract more due to the increased diffusion rate of Oxygen. This increases the chances of overtaking your opponents and winning the race.


Increase in Blood Volume
The amount of blood circulating and individuals body is their Blood Volume. The blood volume varies from person to person, depending on their current sporting activity. Training will increase the blood volume of an individual. The blood volume also increases as a result of capillarisation. Because of this, there is a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to be provided to muscles during sports. Capillarisation also causes our bodies to become more efficient at removing Carbon Dioxide from our bodies, which is produced as a waste product of exercise.
Training: Long-term and continuous training will enhance an increase in blood volume. These may include long distance running, swimming and cycling.
Advantages in Sports: An increase in Blood Volume is greatly beneficial to athletes undertaking a cycling event, such as tour de France. These events are very long in distance and require the cyclist to be very durable and to pedal most of the length of the race. This requires the cyclists to train in order to have an increase in blood volume. This means that they will have a greater supply of blood to be provided to their working muscles, such as quadriceps and gastrocnemius. This is an advantage because the greater blood supply in the whole body, will provide the working muscles with nutrients and oxygen, allowing them to contract more frequently. This allows the cyclist to keep pedalling and proceeding throughout the track. This increases the chances of winning because they will pedal harder and faster than their opponents and overtaking them.
An increase in Blood Volume is also beneficial to athletes that undertake long distance Rowing. These athletes are using their arms to constantly row, in order to move through the water. An increase in blood volume, means that the wlll be provided with a greater supply of blood to the working muscles that are used to row, such as biceps and triceps. This is an advantage because they will be able to row faster if their muscles are contracting more, due to the greater oxygen and nutrient levels that are provided via the greater blood flow. This increases the chances of wining, as you can row faster than others.
Hypertrophy
Reduction in Resting Blood Pressure
This is the pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. The Blood Pressure of an individual can be increased if they exercise for a while. When they stop, their Blood pressure should eventually return to normal. The quicker they recover, the fitter they are to be able to exercise and perform sports. Research indicates that regular exercise can contribute to the reduction of blood pressure. This may prevent: Fainting, stroke, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes.
If the blood pressure is high, then an individual may get a heart disease.
The chances of these problems can be reduced as a result of long term and/or continuous training, such as long distance running, swimming and/or cycling.
Decreased Recovery Time
The recovery of the heart rate is a measure of how much an individual's hear rate falls during the first minute of exercise. The fitter their heart is, the quicker it can return to it's normal Blood pressure after resting. Individuals who train continuously are fitter, so they are able to recover more rapidly because their cardiovascular system may adapt to these changes such as the increased demands of oxygen from the muscles.
Training: Long term and continuous training can enhance and make an individuals time of recovery to decrease through exercise such as long distance running, like 1500M, cycling and swimming.
Advantages in Sports: This is an advantage in Boxing. In the final rounds of a boxing match, the boxers will be very tired and achy because of the constant fighting between 2 opponents. During the short-time-period break in between rounds, boxers use this time so they can recover and are able to breathe properly and supply their working muscles, such as biceps and triceps with more oxygen so they can keep contracting and hitting their opponent. This is an advantage because they will be able to perform they way that they used to in the earlier matches, because they have recovered really fast. This way, they can win the fight because they have fully recovered and can knock their opponent out more easily because their muscles have recovered very fast.
This is also an advantage in Cycling. On big and long cycling tracks, there are usually hills/mountains the cyclists have to pedal upwards to. When they go downhill, they do not need to pedal, so this duration can be used as a recovery time, in order so they can pedal once again if there's another hill up ahead. This is advantage because the recovery time will recover the muscles, so they can contract again later on in the track when they cyclists begin to pedal again. This can increase the chances of winning, because they can rest and recover their muscles faster than others, so they can pedal more frequently and faster, overtaking their opponents.
Increased Aerobic Fitness
An individuals body may adapt to exercise if they exercise for a period of weeks/months, e.g. the heart becoming stronger. The physiological changes that occur with repeated exposure to exercise can improve and individual's exercise capacity and efficiency. A heart can become more efficient and its endurance capacity can be increased with Aerobic training. This is because of cardiac hypertrophy and capillarisation. These factors can enhance a performance of a sportsman.
Training: Long and continuous training can enhance an increase in Aerobic Fitness through exercise and activities, such as long-distance running, like 1500M, 200M swimming and long distance cycling.
Advantages in Sports: An increase in Aerobic Fitness is an advantage in an 800M race. This is a long distance race, so our aerobic energy systems are used. If the aerobic fitness of an athlete are increased, they are provided with a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and their body removes carbon dioxide quicker. Working muscles, such as quadriceps and hamstrings are provided with greater levels of oxygen because of the increase in aerobic fitness. This allows the muscles to contract, allowing the athletes to run even faster. This is an advantage because if their muscles are contracting more, they will be able to overtake their opponents and increase the chances of winning.
An increase in aerobic fitness is also an advantage in Skiing. This sporting event can take up a long duration as it is usually set at a long distance for the athletes to skii. An increase in aerobic fitness provides working muscles such as triceps and quadriceps with a greater supply of oxygen and nutrients, so they are able to contract more, allowing the athletes to ski by pushing off the ground. This is an advantage because if their working muscles can contract more it means they are able to Ski faster and harder than their opponents because their muscles are provided with blood, which carries oxygen, allowing the contraction of the muscle. This increases the chances of winning, because you can overtake opponents faster.

Volume Name
Description
Tidal Volume
Minute Volume
Vital Capacity
Residual Volume
Changes as a result of exercise
The volume of air moved into or out of the lungs during each breath
Increases
Volume of gas inhaled or exhaled after the maximal inspiration
Increases
Volume of air breathed and exhaled after the maximal inspiration
Slightly Changes
The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation
No change to the residual volume because lungs will collapse
Musculoskeletal System
Calcium Stores
Energy Systems
Cardiovascular System
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