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Industrial Revolution

Notes for the History unit covering the Industrial Revolution

James Petersen

on 25 March 2013

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution

An economic and social revolution The Industrial Revolution It began in Great Britain in the 18th century. The first phase was ushered in by the invention of the steam engine. The second phase was brought on by the discovery of electricity and oil. Population increased because agricultural advances provided more and better food for people, who then lived longer. The Causes of Industrialization crop rotation
new vegetables introduced from America
improved livestock production because of plants used for feed
more efficient machinery
accumulation of agricultural land in enclosures Agricultural and Technological Innovations The Industrial Revolution was caused by:
substantial capital to invest
new ways of running the economy An Economic Revolution It was called a "revolution" because a series of scientific, technological and agricultural innovations caused major changes that marked the beginning of a new era. This resulted in a strong demand for manufactured goods, which resulted in a significant rise in the workforce. British landscape during the Industrial Revolution Factories and coal mines proliferated. Cities grew around mines and factories. Rail networks connected cities More people working Stronger demand Increase in manufactured goods. More jobs Invention of the steam engine
use of coal (increase in mining)
expansion of metallurgical sector
invention of flying shuttle for weaving
invention of mechanical spinning frame The textile sector benefitted first because of: a strong demand for cotton products
the availability of raw cotton from the British Colonies
inventions such as the water frame Page 1 Page 2 Urbanization

Economic Liberalism


Enclosure Economic system in which one social group possesses the capital and the means of production.

Practice of consolidating parcels of land and fencing them to protect the crops.

Concentration of population in cities.

Theory that advocates free enterprise and limited state intervention in the economy. _________ developed a new economic theory called ____________. According to this theory, the wealth of a nation was linked to the production of _____ and the ________ to produce. To encourage production, Smith advocated _______ of enterprise and of the ______, and limited _____ intervention. Adam Smith economic liberalism goods freedom market capacity state Two new means of transportation: A social revolution Page 3 Working Conditions: Living Conditions: long days (13 - 14 hours)
6 day work week
unhealthy workplace
noise from the machines
dangerous work
inadequate lighting
low wages
child labour
lack of protection in case of accident unsanitary housing
too small
poorly heated in winter
no running water
no sewers
no public services (ex: garbage collection, police, firefighters)
spread of contagious diseases
short life expectancy
high mortality rate, particularly for children. Women and children Whole families worked were hired because they were paid less than men. because wages were low. It took all of their earnings to support the family. A is a group of people who have similar living conditions and common interests. The was the social class made up of entrepreneurs, financiers and . The was the social class composed of all the workers. social class bourgeoisie employers working class Bourgeoisie
(entrepreneurs, financiers, employers) Working class
(proletariat) Social Class Interests Earn profits, invest in the economy, make their companies profitable. Improve their working conditions and living conditions. Socialism: advocates equality, solidarity, and the common good instead of individual interests. Karl Marx (communism) What did workers do to improve their conditions? They formed unions and called strikes to demand better working conditions. The espoused new ideologies: socialism, communism and social democracy. Definition: to adopt or support. Definition: A political and economic theory of that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated. Definition: A political theory advocating a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs. Definition: A socialist system of government achieved by democratic means In response to the workers' demands, new laws were passed to regulate: child labour
work hours
the recognition of unions
the right to strike
universal education
social security
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