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Proportional Representation

Proportional Systems

James Hague

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Proportional Representation

Proportional Systems Proportional Representation Proportional Representation (PR) Overall Results a title that covers a wide variety of electoral systems where seats in parliament are more or less in proportion to votes cast. British Politics has used forms of proportional representation in elections for devolution in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. A form of proportional representation was used in the London mayoral election as well. But it has never replaced First-Past-The-Post in British national elections. The List System is a voting system which involves multi-member constituencies, where the elector votes not for individual candidates but for a list of a particular party. The system was introduced for British elections to the European Parliament from 1999. Seats in the constituency are allocated between the parties according to their proportions of the vote in that constituency. Seats are allocated to individual candidates according to their position on the party list. List System List System Candidates will be elected PROPORTIONALLY Results The percentage vote for each party will closely match the percentage of their candidates elected to parliament Learning Outcomes To be able to describe and explain examples of proportional representation electoral systems To understand the advantages and disadvantages of these systems If Labour win 43% of the vote in a constituency then 43% of the candidates on their list will be elected If in the same constituency the Conservatives win 32% of the vote then 32% of the candidates on their list will be elected And so on... Distinction Closed List System - the party lists are designed by the party themselves and the candidates are ranked as the party desires Open List System - the candidates are listed in order of preference by the voters themselves TASK Using p.48-49 and the article rank the advantages and disadvantages of a list system and give reasons. Single Transferable Vote (STV) To be elected a candidate must receive a set amount of votes known as the quota. The quota depends on how many people voted and how many seats the constituency has to fill. The votes are counted in stages. Stage 1 - First choices are counted. Anyone who reaches the quota is elected and if all seats are filled then there is no need for further counting. Stage 2 - Any votes received over the quota are not needed by the elected candidate and so are transferred proportionally to the 2nd choice on the ballot paper. If the seats are not all filled at this stage because not enough candidates have received the quota then those candidates at the bottom of the list with the least votes are struck off and their votes are transferred to the 2nd choice on the ballot paper. Anyone who reaches the quota is elected. Stage 3 - The process is repeated if needed. Single Transferable Vote (STV) Results Once the seats for each constituency have been filled there will be a good correlation between party votes and seats won. TASK Using p49 and the article rank the advantages and disadvantages of STV and give reasons. Single Transferable Vote (STV) Each voter gets one vote, which can transfer from their first-preference to their second-preference, so if your preferred candidate has no chance of being elected or has enough votes already, your vote is transferred to another candidate in accordance with your instructions. STV thus ensures that very few votes are wasted, unlike other systems, especially First Past the Post, where only a small number of votes actually contribute to the result. STV
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