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Water on Earth

By: Scott Peterson
by

Scott Peterson

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of Water on Earth

Water on Earth Water
Solid, liquid or gas
A water molecule contains 1 oxygen and 2 hydrogen atoms (H2O)
Melting point: 0°c
Boiling point: 100°c Significance of Water -As a natural resource for humans and other animals Significance of water: -As a constitute of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism Solvent Water is essential in the process of metabolism as both a solvent and raw material.
Because water is a solvent within many living cells, it allows many chemical reactions to take place, allowing
vital processes to take place which are important for
general functioning.
It also provides a liquid medium in which these reactions can occur. Water as a liquid in living cells as a raw material is very important to the general functioning of an organism.
Being a raw material, allows cells to undergo processes such as metabolism and photosynthesis.
Meaning that it is the fundamental principle behind these processes which take place within cells.
It's also a thermal buffer that resists large temperature fluctuations. Water makes up about 60 % of the human composition, and can reach up to around 90 % within other organisms.
The jellyfish is a living organism with very high water content.
This is why it has a transparent appearance. Water is primarily the most abundant liquid in living cells.
It plays vital roles in many processes which the cells need to perform in order to sustain the correct functioning of the body.
It is extremely important as a constituent
of cells, as it allows structures present
within the living organisms to correctly
operate. Significance of Water: Constituent of cells Its Roles Raw Material Significance of water: -As an agent of weathering of rocks as both a liquid and a solid Liquid Liquid water is one of the main agents of weathering and erosion. It has the ability to decompose and transport solids of rocks, soils and minerals away from their natural environment, often leading to the destruction of habitats and natural ecosystems. The most common form of liquid water erosion occurs as running water, but can cause extreme erosion in all forms e.g. streams. The faster the water moves within its confinement, the more energy it has to enhance its ability to pick up larger and heavier solids of earth. Solid water is often referred to as ice. Solid water acting as an agent of weathering is a regularly occurring process. An example of this includes the process in which water seeps into a rock or crevice. As the temperature decreases this water freezes and when water freezes it expands (this is due to the strong structure of a water molecule). When water freezes the molecules rearrange themselves into a circular lattice structure which takes up more space and thus increases the volume, expanding the volume has the ability to crack, fragment and decompose the rocks and other materials. Erosion is different to the process of weathering, in that the solids (rocks, minerals and soil) are actually removed, and deposited in a different place to where they started. Erosion is the removal of already weathered rocks. Wind
and water are the two main agents of
erosion as they transport the sediment
away from their original environments.
There are many types of erosion, but they
all refer to the movement of materials. Weathering is a process in which the Earth’s soils,
rocks and minerals are decomposed due to physical,
chemical and biological processes. Mechanical
weathering is the process in which these solids are
broken into smaller and smaller fragments by
physical means, i.e. heat, water and pressure.
Chemical weathering is the process in which the minerals, rocks and soil undergo chemical changes when they experience contact with natural chemicals such as the element oxygen and the compound water. Solid -A habitat in which temperature extremes are less than terrestrial habitats Humans Non-Humans Irrigation: for farming and crops
Drinking: for maintaining bodily functions & hydration
Hydroelectricity: driving a turbine connected to a generator
Transportation: of materials across rivers, canals and oceans
Washing: chemicals dissolved in water, to dissolve and extract substances Natural Solvent: for chemicals in our body
Heat Exchange: as a coolant and for heating
Cooking: a solvent for many salts and sugars
Recreation: fishing, swimming, sailing and water sports
Fire Extinction: because of its high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert All animals need to have a constant and steady supply of water to allow vital functions. Whether it be temperature regulation to controlling acidity or basicity, water is a necessity for all animal life.
It is used as a medium for animals to swim in,
a source for oxygen and other essential
minerals, helps with digestion and joint
lubrication in vertebrates. Fish and other water animals are unable to maintain their own body temperature. Water's polarity allows only the top layer to freeze. If water was not polar,
the top section of the water would freeze and sink repeatedly
until the whole lake was frozen, killing the fish. Water's polarity
and its resistance to changing temperature are both major factors
to sustaining this aqueous habitat in extreme circumstances. Bodies of water
such as oceans provide food,
water and shelter for the vast variety
of species that live in it. Oceans can support plants and animals which are crucial in order to uphold the complex underwater
life cycle.
E.g. coral Water resists
temperature change, therefore
creating a much more stable environment
temperature-wise than those animals that live
surrounded by air.
Water expands between
0 °C-4°C, as it is now
less dense, floats to the
surface. This allows the
animals to live in the
space under the
frozen surface. Bibliography Allibard, Richard & Heffernan, D. & Molyneux, K (2006) ‘Spotlight Chemistry Preliminary’. In (ed.) Science Press, Marrickville Australia pp124-179.
American Water Works Association (2002) The Story of Drinking Water. [Internet]. Available at <www.drinktap.org/kidsdnn/Portals/5/story_of_water/html/earth.htm> viewed 02 June 2012.
ISIS (1999) Institue of Science in Society. [Internet]. Available at <www.i-sis.org.uk/TIOCW.php> viewed 01 June 2012.
Ball, Phillip (2008) Chem Life. [Internet]. Available at < www.chemlife.umd.edu/classroom/bsci338-biol708/Ball_ChemRev_Water_2008.pdf> viewed 19 June 2012.
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