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Female Spies of the American Civil War

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Michelle Venuta

on 21 May 2013

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Transcript of Female Spies of the American Civil War

Female Spies
of the American ......Civil War Mata Hari Mata Hari was a dancer, and a spy for the Germans in
World War I. Mata Hari's birth name was Margaretha Gertruida Zelle, and she was born in the Netherlands. She had an unhappy marriage, and as soon as her son died, she left. She named herself Mata Hari, and learned how to dance in the Indies.
On 13 February 1917, Mata Hari was arrested in Paris. She was put on trial on 24 July, accused of spying for Germany and causing the deaths of at least 50,000 soldiers. Although the French and British thought she was spying for Germany, they had no evidence against her. Secret ink was found in her room, but she said that it was part of her make-up.She wrote letters to the Dutch Consul in Paris: "My international connections are due of my work as a dancer, nothing else... Because I really did not spy, it is terrible that I cannot defend myself." She was executed by firing squad on 15 October 1917, at the age of 41. code name: H-21 Elizabeth Van Lew
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Van_Lew
http://www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/vanl-eli.htm
Harely, Tom. Timespan Spies.

Mary Elizabeth Bower
http://www.sameshield.com/spies/bowser.html
Colman, Penny. Spies!: Women in the Civil War. Shoe Tree Press, 1992.

Belle Boyd
http://www.civilwarhome.com/boydbio.htm
http://www.civilwarwomenblog.com/2008/06/belle-boyd.html
Boyd, Belle. Belle Boyd in Camp and Prison.Saunders, Otley and co.: London, 1865.

Rose O'Neil Greenhow
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_O'Neal_Greenhow

Sarah Emma Edmondson
Stevens, Bryna. Frank Thompson: Her Civil War Story. Macmillan Publishing/Maxwell Macmillan: Toronto Canada, 1992.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_Emma_Edmonds Elizabeth Van Lew Known as "Crazy Bet" to her Southern friends, Elizabeth Van Lew was a Union spy in the American Civil War. In her house, she had a secret room where she would keep escaped soldiers and receive information from them that she would pass on to the Union.
When her father died she used all of her inheritance ($10 000) to free slaves, even though his will didn’t allow her to. She didn't believe in owning slaves, and had set her own slaves free before the war, although many of them stayed as paid servants. One of her former slaves, Mary Bower, helped Mrs. Lew with her spying work.
Her father had been very close friends with the leaders of the Confederacy before he died, so Elizabeth Van Lew was able to get information from them. She would often talk to herself in front of them, trying to make them believe she was crazy, they even gave her the name "Crazy Bet."
George H. Sharpe, an intelligence officer for the Army of the Potomac gave her "the greater portion of our intelligence in 1864-65." When he visited Richmond after the war Mr. Sharpe had tea with Mrs. Lew, later making her the postmaster of Richmond. He said to her, "You have sent me the most valuable information received from Richmond during the war." Mary Elizabeth
Bower Belle Boyd BIBLIOGRAPHY Rose O'Neal Greenhow Table of Contents Slide 1 .......................................................................................................................................... Belle Boyd
Slide 2 .......................................................................................................................................... Rose O'Neil Greenhow
Slide 3 ..........................................................................................................................................Elizabeth Van Lew
Slide 4 .......................................................................................................................................... Mary Elizabeth Bower
Slide 5 .......................................................................................................................................... Sarah Emma Thompson
Slide 6 .......................................................................................................................................... Bibliography In July 1861, the Union army came to Belle Boyd's town. Belle's family was part of the Confederacy, and so the family put up the Confederate flag to show their political position. A drunken Northern solider saw this and walked right into their home and insulted Belle and her mother. After arguing with them for a long time he shoved Belle Boyd's mother. Belle grabbed the pistol and shot him dead. She could have been tried for murder, but General Patterson said that she was just protecting her mother and let her go. This was the earliest and most well known story about Belle Boyd.
On May 23, Belle Boyd heard that the Confederates were about to capture Fort Royal. She ran to the army in the middle of the cross fire, getting holes in her skirt from the bullets. She told one of the officers to tell General Jackson "the Yankee force is very small. Tell him to charge right down and he will catch them all." General Jackson changed the battle plans, winning the battle. He later gave her a note saying “I thank you, for myself and for the army, for the immense service that you have rendered your country today."
But Belle Boyd was a careless spy, and she was taken to prison many times. On July 29, 1862 she was arrested and taken to a military prison. Fortunately, she was able to get General John A. Dix to set her free. She was also arrested on August 1, 1863, and sent to the Carroll Prison of the Old Capitol, where she almost died of typhoid fever.
The Union finally decided to banish her from the North, and she was freed on December 1, 1863. She later wrote a book called "Belle Boyd in Camp and Prison" although no one knows for sure how much of her writing is true. Rose O'Neal Greenhow was on the side of the confederates in the civil war.
Mrs. Greenhow’s love for the Confederates started soon after her husband died. She was friends with U.S. Senator John C. Calhoun, who probably influenced her politics greatly. This love was seen by U.S. Army officer Thomas Jordan (this was the person that recruited her as a spy). He gave her a 26-symbol cipher, which she used for her secret messages.
On July 9 1861 and July 16 1861, Rose O'Neal Greenhow passed messages using the cipher that Mr. Jordan had given her to Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard that held important information about the military on the "First Battle of Bull Run".
She was worried that she would be captured, so she sent one of her daughters, Leila, to stay with her other daughter, Florence, and her husband. Florence’s husband was a captain for the Union.
She had been taken to prison many times. She was not a good prisoner though, and would hang the Confederate flag in her cell window and sing the Confederate song. She passed messages to the army hidden inside a woman’s bun even when she was imprisoned. The angle of her blinds would have special meanings to her fellow spies. Sarah Emma Edmonds BY AERIANA NARBONNE Sarah Emma Edmonds was born in Canada, but fought for the Union in the American Civil war. She fled from her father when she was young and decided to disguise herself as a man changing her name to Franklin Thompson in order to keep herself safe. Although there are no records of her spying she wrote about it in her book, The Female Spy of the Union Army.
She had many different disguises, including one where she used silver nitrate to dye her skin black and wore a black wig, disguising herself as a black man named Cuff. Once, she disguised herself as an Irish peddler woman named Bridget O'Shea, and told people she was selling apples and soap to the soldiers. Another time she pretended that she was working for the Confederates as a laundress. During this disguise, a packet of official papers fell out of an officer's jacket and Ms. Edmonds picked them up and gave them to the Union. She is the only Canadian spy in the American Civil war. Mary Elizabeth Bower was Elizabeth Van Lew's father's slave, but when he died Mrs. Lew and her mother set all of their slaves free. Elizabeth Mary Bower was very smart, and so Mrs. Lew sent her to the Quaker School for Negroes in Philadelphia in the late 1850s. Unlike most African-Americans at the time, she knew how to read and write.
When the war began, Mrs. Lew asked her to come and work for her as a spy. Mrs. Bower pretended to be an uneducated slave at the White House, and called herself Ellen Bond. She had a photographic memory, so she was able to memorize pages she found lying around and would report them back to Mrs. Lew by either meeting her at night by Mrs. Lew’s farm or Thomas McNiven, a baker. Bower would meet him at his wagon to pick up his goods, and would tell him everything she knew.
She was found out, though no one knows how, and escaped. The last thing she tried to do for the Union was set the white house on fire. She failed and had to flee. No one knows how or when she died. On January 18th 1862, Rose O’Neal Greenhow was transferred to Old Capital Prison. Her youngest daughter, Rose O’Neal Greenhow (O’Neal being her middle name) was allowed to stay with her. They were released on May 31, 1862 and Mrs. Greenhow was thought of as a heroine by southerners.
On October 1st, 1864, Greenhow was traveling on the Condor when it hit the side of the river. The Condor was being followed by a Union gunboat, and so Greenhow decided to flee in a row boat. The row boat was over taken by a large wave and Mrs. Greenhow, who was wearing $2, 000 worth of gold around her neck, drown. When they found her, they found her book with her as well. In it, was a note for her daughter, which said:

London, Nov 1st 1863
You have shared the hardships and indignity of my prison life, my darling; And suffered all that evil which a vulgar despotism could inflict. Let the memory of that period never pass from your mind; Else you may be inclined to forget how merciful Providence has been in seizing us from such a people.

Rose O'Neal Greenhow. Rose O'Neal Greenhow (Continued) These are just a few of the female
spies in the American Civil War. Map of the battle fields of the American Civil War
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