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Chemistry

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terra pham

on 24 May 2015

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Transcript of Chemistry

Chemistry
Matter
Anything that has a mass and a volume
Solid
Liquid
Gas
3 states of matter
Pure Substance
Made up of one matter
Mixture
Combination of different types of matter or pure matter
Element
A substance between elements and compound is: any simpler substances that cannot be broken down into any simpler substance by chemical means
Compound
Pure substance that is made from 2 or more elements that are combine together chemically
Heterogeneous mixture
When different parts of the mixture is visible
Homogeneous mixture
When one substance is dissolved in to another
Mechanical Mixture
Suspensions
Solutions
Combination of pure substances in which the different substances are individually visible
Cloudy mixture in which tiny particles of one substance are held within another
A combination of pure substances in which the different substances are not individually visible
Physical Properties
Colour and Iustre
The light a substance reflects gives it colour and iustre (shine)
Conductivity
The ability of a substance to conduct electricity or heat.
A substance that conducts electricity or heat
Conductor
Insulator
A substance with little or no conductivity
Fair Conductor
A substance that will allow some movement of electrons
Density
Hardness
Ability to resist being scratches. Hardness is usually measured in Mohs hardness scale from 1 to 10
Malleability
A substance that can be pounded or rolled into sheets is said to be malleable
Ductility
Any solid that can be stretched into a long wire is said to be ductility
The amount of mass in a given volume of a substance
Viscosity
The resistance of a fluid to flow
Transparency
The quality or state of being transparent
Chemical Properties and Changes
Chemical Properties
The ability of a substance to change into a new substance or substances
Physical change
The substance involved remain the same substance, even though there may be a change of state or form
6 evidence of chemical change
Colour
Odour
Temperature
The production of light
The formation of a new solid inside a liquid
Production of a new gas
Combustible
Ability of a substance to react quickly with oxygen to produce heat and light.
Atom
The smallest part of an element that has all of the element's properties.
All matter is made of small, indivisible particles called atoms
All the atoms of an element are identical in properties such as mass or size
Atoms of different elements have different properties
Atoms of different elements can combine in specific ways to form new substances
John's explanation of the nature of matter
Scientist who helped with the discovery of atoms
He used a cathode ray tube to study atoms. He then discovered non-radioactive atoms to produce steams of negative charged particles called electrons
Positive charge
A positive charge is a charged object that has more protons then electrons
Negative charge
Negative charge is a charged object that has more electrons than protons
J.J. Thomson
Ernest Rutherford
After his discovery by using the "gold foil" experiment, he discovered a nucleus in the atom, which has a positive charge
James Chadwick
He discovered that the nucleus is a neutral particles. The particles on the outside have a positive charge
Niels Bohr
According to him, electrons are arranged by energy levels called shells in his diagram, the Bohr diagram
Quantum mechanical model
This is the current model has electrons existing in specific energy levels, but they surround the positively charged nucleus in a form resembling a cloud
Neutral charged
A neutral charge is a charged object that has equal amounts of protons and electrons
Protons
Symbol: P
Relative Mass: 1836
Electric charge: 1+
Location: Nucleus
Neutron
Symbol: n
Relative mass: 1837
Electric charge: 0
Location: Nucleus
Electrons
Symbol: e
Relative Mass: 1
Electric charge: -1
Location: in energy levels surrounding the nucleus
Metals
The properties of Metals is:
- shiny, silver, grey in colour
- excellent conductors for electricity and heat
- malleable and ductille
Non-Metals
Properties of Non-Metals is: Does not resemble metal
Metalliods
Properties of a metalloids is:
- Metallic and non-metallic
- Conduct electricity not very well
- Easier to control the flow of electricity through semi conductors
Alloy
A mixture of 2 or more metals
Element symbols
Element symbols consist of 1 or 2 letters. The 1st letter is always capitalized. If there is a 2nd letter, it is not capitalized
Periodic Table
An important tool when studying Chemistry
Atomic number
Number of protons in an atoms and how they combine to form all types of matter
Atomic mass
Average mass of an element's atoms
Ion Charge
Electric charge that an atom or group of joined atoms takes on when it loses or gains electrons
Periods and Groups
Periods is a horizontal row
Groups is a vertical column
Bohr Diagrams
- Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus, electrons are located in energy shells surrounding the nucleus
From the atomic number, we can see how many protons an element has. The number of protons and the number of electrons are the same in all atoms so that the charges are balanced
The first shell holds only 2 electrons and every other shell after can hold 8. The outer most shell is called the valence shell means that electrons there are valence electrons
Lewis structure
This is another way of showing the amount of electrons in only the outer shell of the atom
Forming an Ion charge
Ions are formed atoms that gain or lose electrons. Atoms become stable by having full shells so they do this by forming ions
Group 14 elements can go either way, it can lose or gain 4 electrons. So their charge will be 4+ and 4-
Ionic Compounds
Substances made up of at least one metal and non-metal.
the metal will form a positive ion and the non-metal will form a negative ion. The positive and negative charge attract each other
Naming
Process of naming ionic compounds:
- 1st element (metal) stays the same
- 2nd element (non-metal) has its ending changed to"ide".
Molecular Compunds
Substances created by cobining non-metals only. In a molecular compound, atoms share electrons to complete electrons shells
Naming
Process of naming molecular compounds:
- 1st element: stay the same
- Prefix to 1st name is added to indicate the amount of first element atoms
- 2nd element has its ending change to "ide"
- Prefix to 2nd name is added to indicate the amount of 2nd element atoms
Mono is only used for second element. If the first element has only one, leave it blank
Writing formulas
Process for writing formulas:
-identify symbol for 1st element
- identify symbol for 2nd element
- add subscripts to each element telling how many there are of each
Writing formulas
- exanime the compound's name
- identify the ions and their charges
- determine the number of each ion nedded to balance the charges
- note the ratio of positive to negative ions
- write the formula
Hazards and Benefits of Compounds
Chemicals are all around us some are useful and some are dangerous.
Mercury
Mercury poisoning, the exposure of Mercury, causes reproductive problems and birth defects
Burning coal
Burning coal for energy is one of the human activites that is associated with exposure to Mercury
Driving cars
Driving cars is another kind of human activity that is associated with exposure of Mercury
Ozone layer
The ozone layer is there to protect us from harmful UV rays from the sun
CFC
CFC is a chemical that use to keep food in the refrigeration cool because it was non-toxic and non-flamable, but it is now considered unsafe because it is destroying the Ozone layer
4 ways that we can manage the use of hazardous chemicals
Understand the properties of a substances and how to use the substances safely
Designing innovative equipment and processes
Placing personal safety and environmental protection as the top priority
Enforing effective regulations
Prefix
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