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Geologic Timeline

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Mariel Lepra

on 7 August 2014

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Transcript of Geologic Timeline

Geologic Timeline

Precambrian Era
Paleozoic Era
Mesozoic Era
Cenozoic Era
A walk through of Earth's History by Mariel Lepra
4550 mya
Formation of Earth

2500 mya
570 mya
570 mya
245 mya
490 mya
443 mya
417 mya
354 mya
323 mya
290 mya
245 mya
65 mya
206 mya
144 mya
65 mya
Present Day
1.8 mya
The Whole Picture
Precambrian Era
Cenozoic Era
Mesozoic Era
No atmosphere
Earth's crust was formed during this time period
No lifeforms existed during this period of time
Rocks determined to be from the Hadean are always azoic (contain no traces of organic matter)
Many meteorites bombarded the Earth during this time; oldest meteorites have been aged to 4.6 bya
Some scientist speculate that one of the later meteorites could of been responsible for carrying the molecules preceding organic molecules and lifeforms
Earliest fossils date back to this time period
The first organisms appear: anaerobic single-celled microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria
Atmosphere is very harsh, so only anerobic organisms are able to fluorish
3800 mya
First photosynthesizing organisms appear: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
Atomosphere is changed by the cyanobacteria to include oxygen
The resulting atmosphere is too toxic for anaerobic organisms; many die out
Biodiversity begins to explode due to changing atmosphere; sexual reproduction evolves
Proterozoic period ends with the first mass extinction event, with 70% of organisms lost
Primitive multicellular organisms evolve, even larger shelled organisms can be traced to the Proterozoic
Invertebrates dominate the Earth: worms, jellyfish and trilobites
Most recognizable creature from this period are hard shelled arthropods called trilobites
Primitive reef-forming organisms also began to evolve
Multicellular organisms continue to evolve
Transition to Ordovician period is marked by the Cambrian-Ordovician mass extinction event which occurred 488 mya and eliminated species,a s well as severely cutting the number of trilobites
Two mass extinction occurred during the Ordovician: one devastated reef building creatures and another marine organisms, such as trilobites
This extinction was attributed to the glaciation periods believed to have occurred during this period, which would of caused ocean levels to fluctuate dramatically
Early jawless fish begin to evolve!
Another mass extinction occurred between the Ordovician and Silurian periods; it wiped out 85% of species at the time
First soils are formed, along with moss forests
Vascular land plants begin to appear
Multicellular ancestors of spiders and centipedes appear
Jawed fish evolve
Trilobites thrive but then begin to decline
The Age of Fish: jawed fish dominate the oceans
First tetrapods (amphibians) evolve; they are able to exit the water and explore the land
Ammonites, marine mammals, and primitive air-breathing fish begin to leave their marine habitats
First terrestrial creatures include terrestrial arthropods such as crustaceans, insects and arachnids
Pangaea is formed by Earth tectonic movements
Amphibians dominate the Earth and live in swamps
Large air-breathing insects are also very prolific
Marine levels were quite low
Very warm climate
Oxygen concentration is 36% higher then it is today, allowing arthropods to become larger
Age of plants; flowerless spore-forming plants and ferns dominate the landscape
First bark-bearing trees and conifers appear
First sharks and reptiles make their appearance
During the later part of the Pennsylvanian, the climate cools due to a glaciation period
Coal deposits are formed
More advanced species of conifers evolve
Pangaea solidifies into what it looks like during the Mesozoic Era
Mammal-like reptiles begin to appear
Animals include reptiles, large insects, mollusks, corals and brachiopods (animals with hard valves)
Insect species include dragonflies, roaches, beetles and flies
The most massive extinction in the history of planet Earth occurrs; it is called the Permian-Triassic or Permian Extinction
During this extinction, 95% of all marine life is lost, and more than 70% of terrestrial life is wiped out as well
Climate is hot and dry, with polar regions temperate and humid
Excellent example of Adaptive Radiation: after the Permian extinction, many ecological niches need to be filled, leading to an explosion in biodiversity
First dinosaurs appear!
Primitive egg-laying mammals begin to appear
First flying vertebrates, such as pterosaurs, make their entrance
Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction causes the loss of 25-30% of life, including early dinosaur families, marine invertebrates and mammal-like reptiles
Ocean anoxia (depletion of oxygen) causes another mass extinction; mollusks are seriously affected
Dinosaurs dominate the Earth
Early flowering plants appear
Primitive mammals and birds begin to crop up
Pangaea separates
Age of reptiles
Primitive marsupial mammals, similar to kangaroos, begin to appear
The first modern feathered birds make their appearance
K-T Boundary (Cretaceous- Tertiary) is marked by another massive extinction
This extinction was caused by an enormous asteroid impact around 65 mya (alternatively, the asteroid could of broken up in the atmosphere and struck the Earth at several locations)
The impacts created devastating natural disasters such as noxious clouds of gas that blocked out the sun and mammoth tsunamis that obliterated coastlines
Dinosaurs and 50% of all other species became extinct
Age of Mammals begins
Early grazing animals evolve
Ancestral primates, cats, dogs, horses and rabbits evolve
The viviparity trait evolves; small mammals such as mice no longer lay eggs, but evolve plancentas and bear live young
Homo Habilis, one of the first hominids, apps 2.5 mya
Many smaller extinctions occur due to interglacial events adn the rise and fall of sea levels and global temperatures
The Great Ice Age marks the Tertiary-Quaternary boundary (1/3 of the world was covered in ice)
World-wide Ice Age ended 1100000 ya
Homo Erectus evolved 700000 ya
Our own species, Homo Sapiens Sapiens, evolved 400000 ya
Neandethals (Homo Neanderthalensis) evolved 100000, but went extinct shortly after, possibly due to Homo Sapiens Sapiens wiping them out; no successful interbreeding occurred between the two species
Last Ice Age ended 12000 ya, ending the Pleistocene with the Ice Age Extinction event and starting our current epoch, the Holocene
Extinction continues during the Holocene, wiping out species of large plants and animals known as megafauna due to the end of the last Ice Age and teh proliferation of humans
Modern man evolved 10000 ya
Human history began to be recorded less than 2000 ya
Picture References


Information References
Geologic Timescale. (n.d.)
Totally Different.

August 7, 2014 from http://www.totallydifferent.co.
Precambrian Time, Earth History Information, Prehistoric
Facts. (n.d.) National Geographic. Retrieved August 7, 2014 from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/precambrian/
Geologic Timescale (2011, May 26).
Univeristy of
California Museum of Paleontology.
Retrieved August 7, 2014 from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.
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