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Schools, P.E, Teaching and Learning
Transcript of Schools, P.E, Teaching and Learning
Strenghts & Weaknesses
Strengths & Weaknesses
The effectiveness of Teaching Styles on pupils learning
Different teaching styles not only vary in purpose but are appropriate depending on the diversity of the learners' needs, the context and the content and aims of the lesson (Byra, 2006)
Students are all learning and practicing a task at the same controlled pace; students are not rushed to perform (Thompson, 2009).
No students lag in terms of number of skill repetitions.
Students have multiple opportunities to hear and practice recalling the skill cues in addition to practicing the skill - a good style for novices.
Effective if learnt skill is dangerous, e.g. javelin.
Designed to insure that no student is overly rushed for information processing time.
There is little or no opportunity for the teacher to provide any performance feedback to individual students.
Students who are more advanced may be ready to progress on to a more difficult activity, by not allowing them to do so they may become bored by the slow pace. This will also limit their learning opportunities (Thompson, 2009).
They also primarily support progression of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development (Bailey, 2000)
‘Teaching should therefore engage students in meaningful, goal orientated activities’ (Mosston and Ashworth, 2002)
Frees the teacher to give individual attention to students (Virgilio, 1997).
Effective way of improving pupils ability to reproduce the desirable response to a skill (Bailey & Macfadyen, 2000).
Allows for copying which can be an efficient style, saving time.
Can lead to practicing in isolation via drills which are often boring.
Drills can break down easily when children are required to use them in a game situation.
Permit little opportunity to plan and evaluate performance (Bailey & Macfadyen, 2000).
Allows the learners more freedom and to feel more involved (Barry et al., 2000).
Pupils can split into pairs or small groups enabling them to compare and provide feedback to each other. With pupils using the instructions, it will help improve their communication, social and cognitive skills as well as giving them the opportunity to think through the task and how to approach it (Bailey & Macfadyen, 2000).
The information given from feedback may possibly be incorrect (Barry et al., 2000).
Learners may not be keen to listen to advice from other learners.
Pupils must have a relatively good understanding of the skill.
Gendered teaching styles
Research suggests that girls and boys have received different teaching styles (Green, 2008).
Dominant forms of masculinity and femininity are said to be developed and reinforced through conventional teaching styles (Hargreaves, 1994 as cited in Green, 2008)
Female P.E teachers were more likely to use more informal and reciprocal styles, with males more likely to employ formal and command styles (Green, 2008; Capel, 2005)
These approaches are traditionally facilitated by activities that are offered to each gender; for example gym and dance for girls and olympic gym and health related fitness for boys (Green, 2008).
Learners are given responsibility to asses themselves and make their own decisions.
By analysing their performances against the task criteria, pupils 'apply the information to the execution of subsequent trials which ultimately should lead to improved motor skills performance' (Kirk, MacDonald & O’Sullivan, 2006).
Would have to ensure that the teacher has already given several related lessons on the chosen skill or activity (Virgilio, 1997).
More concerned with the results of a movement, not the movement itself.
Designed to accommodate individual learner performance differences, with student decision making a high priority.
The style facilities the process of individualising instruction across learners of varying skill ability, including all learners at their appropriate level of participation and skill Byra (2000).
By the pupils feeling included and in charge of their learning, it influences the learner's interest, enjoyment and personal meaning, therefore having an impact on learner task engagement and in turn mediating achievement.
Some pupils may find it hard to find or set their appropriate level as they are used to being told by the teacher and so may be hindering their progress.
If the teacher doesn't keep sufficient involvement; students may become off-task.
F. Guided Discovery
Students are more likely to remember the information than if you had simply told them the answer (Mohnsen, 2008).
Significant for creating responsible citizens.
For this style to work the teacher must do a lot of preparation, both for the lesson and for the unanticipated answers.
Because the pupils are primarily working on their own, there is little social interaction between their peers.
G. Convergent Discovery
Learner is engaged throughout the lesson through discovering numerous solutions to the problems posed by the teacher.
Students must be cooperative for this style to work or they will easily fall off task.
Pupils will also need a level of creativity to be able to solve the problems individually.
H. Divergent Discovery
Promotes creative problem solving, recognises individual differences, and encourages cooperative learning (Shimon, 2011).
As long as the group stay on task to the problem, the group will achieve success and may find many solutions (Kassing & Jay, 2003).
Can be too time consuming; more time can be spent thinking and discussing the activity than performing it.
Teacher must have expertise in the activity area.
Physical activity does not guarantee mental activity and it is mental activity which produces learning. Teachers should adopt teaching strategies that actively involve pupils in their own learning – pupils be able to transfer their understanding of principles that govern participation within one game to another setting (Bailey & Macfadyen, 2000).
By handing over responsibility, it empowers pupils and gives them a sense of ownership of the lesson so pupils feel that their ideas count (Bailey & Macfadyen, 2000).
Pupils will need prior learning to the activity.
It is also time consuming.
With the pupils leading and teaching themselves, this style can be hard for the teacher to assess.
What effects the selection of teaching styles?
What is being used at the moment?
Why different teaching styles?
How you teach is as important as what you teach in achieving the aims of P.E (Capel, 1997)
Teacher centered instructional styles continue to be the most commonly observed approaches to teaching P.E classes in the 2000's (Byra, 2006: 450).
This is especially prevalent in lower ability classes (Hallam and Ireson, 2005)
This teacher centre approach continues to dominate practice despite the emphasis on pupils centered approaches in the NCPE and innovations like TGFU and the sports education model (Kirk, 2005; Morgan et al., 2005)
Deep and Shallow learning
Deep learning requires pupils to engage in active reconstruction of information, to make new links and test old ones, resolve contradictions and identify underlying principles (Entwistle, 1990 as cited in Capel et al., 2005; Capel, 2005)
Assessing pupil progress (APP) aids the teacher to understand where the pupil is heading in the learning journey.
Teaching styles should not encourage shallow learning; rather, they should be aimed at promoting deep learning. Use of assessment should aid this. Deep and meaningful learning happens best where social interaction is encouraged. Particularly between a learner and more knowledgable others and where there is a supportive co-operative ethos (Capel et al., 2005)
Reasons for assessment Capel (1997):
• indicate pupils’ strengths and weaknesses;
• identify the needs of pupils;
• determine the progress being made by pupils;
• determine the degree to which unit or lesson objectives are being met;
• inform teachers’ planning and identify where emphasis should be placed in teaching;
• judge what aspects of teaching have been effective or ineffective.
If there are a few different styles of teaching being utilised in lessons this can vary different forms of assessment as Capel (1997) states that it is not necessary to make a formal assessment of every pupil in every lesson taught, or even to record pupil assessment in all units of work. This would keep the learners more engaged whilst being assessed instead of the typical, do your skill and go to the back of the line approach.
Grout and Long (2009) suggest assessment needs to focus on Improvement, Progress and Achievement.
Whilst coaching my u16 national league basketball squad. In pre-season I work on fundamental skills. One of the drills I run for improving shooting techniques require the self-check teaching style as they stand very close to the basket and take a jump shot. Once they have taken their shot they will hold their finishing position, then they will check what is wrong with their shot from the checklist provided in this drill, so they are reflecting upon action. They keep repeating this until they have the correct technique but if they have a faultless technique then they move further away from the basket to see if they hold their technique.
When taking an aerobics class the teaching style utilized is command. This is because it is fundamentally an instructional activity which requires no thinking from the participants to perform and replicate each move. Reflection ‘in action’ must take place from me as a teacher to ensure that efficient energy is being exerted to meet their needs for exercise. I must remaining responsive, providing different options for each individual so that success is being achieved at their own levels.
Assessment is a fundamental part of effective learning in a pupils development and assessing pupil progress (APP) aids the teacher to understand where the pupil is heading in the learning journey.
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How does this all relate to the National Curriculum?
The philosophy of Every Child Matters underpins National Curriculum in England and is required to ensure all pupils make progress in becoming:
- Successful Learners (who enjoy learning, make progress and achieve)
- Confident Individuals (who are able to live safely, healthy and fulfilling lives)
- Responsible Citizens (who make a positive contribution to society)
Successful learners who enjoy learning, make progress and achieve
Confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives
Responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society (NCPE, 2007)
The curriculum should provide relevant and challenging learning to all children. It should follow the three principles set out in the inclusion statement:
A. setting suitable learning challenges
B. responding to pupils’ diverse learning needs
C. overcoming potential barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups of pupils (NCPE, 2007).
Why in practice is a teacher centred approach still widely used?