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adel abushanab

on 10 December 2012

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Transcript of cell

plants and animal cells!!!! cell walls only found in plants! -plasma Membrane
-Golgi complex
-cell wall
-Leucoplast The Animal is similiar to the plant except for 3, the highlighted words show the difference between cells. Mitocondria function-The main function of the mitochondrion is the production of energy, in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The cell uses this energy to perform the specific work necessary for cell survival and function. Vacuole- Large Vesicle enclosed in sungle membrane 50% of volume in plant cells. Vacuole of a plant and animal!
Functions-Provide tensile strength and limited plasticity which are important for:
keeping cells from rupturing from turgor pressure
turgor pressure provides support for non-woody tissues
Thick walled cells provide mechanical support
Tubes for long-distance transport
Cutinized walls prevent water loss
Provide mechanical protection from insects & pathogens
Physiological & biochemical activities in the wall contribute to cell-cell communication plant and animal cells! Only plants have Chloroplast! chloroplast function- During photosynthesis, they use energy from sunlight to turn chemicals in air and water into plant food. Centrioles only found in plants Centrioles-Centrioles are found in animal cells and help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division. Centrioles replicate during the interphase stage of mitosis and meiosis. Centrioles called basal bodies form cilia and flagella. Ribosomes Golgi Apparatus Endoplasmic Reticulum Nucleus Nucleus- Spherical shape
- Visible when cell is not dividing Lysosomes- Function- Stores Nutrients and waste products. Function- Contols the center of a cell Structure: Made up of- Outer Membrane
-Inner Membrane -matrix Structure: There is a membrane that surrounds a mass of fluid. In that fluid are nutrients or waste products. Structure Middle lamella
Primary wall
Secondary wall
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39)
2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39)
3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells. (Virchow)(1858) The 3 basic componets of the cell thoery- Structure; Chloroplasts are tiny, round, green food factories within the leaves of a plant. Structure;Centrioles are cylindrical structures that are composed of groupings of microtubules arranged in a 9 + 3 pattern. The pattern is so named because a ring of nine microtubule "triplets" are arranged at right angles to one another. Function:Ribosomes function as a workbench for protein synthesis, that is, they receive and translate genetic instructions for the formation of specific proteins. Structure:Ribosomes in eukaryotes are made up of two subunits, a large subunit, called 60-S, and a small subunit, named 40-S. In prokaryotes, the subunits are 50-S and 30-S. Golgi Apparatus- Composed of numerous layers forming a sac The main function of Golgi apparatus is to carry out the processing of proteins generated in endoplasmic reticulum. Along with the work of processing proteins, the Golgi apparatus also transports it to the different parts of cell. Funtion:Stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system Function:Transports undigested material to cell membrane for remov Structure:Vary in shape depending on process being carried out Difference between Prokaryotes and eukaryote? Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus (or other organelles that are surrounded by a membrane). Eukaryotic cells do have internal membranes and in particular a nucleus. Prokaryotes come in two kinds: bacteria and archaea. Structure:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane system but consists of various domains that perform different functions. Structurally distinct domains of this organelle include the nuclear envelope (NE), the rough and smooth ER, and the regions that contact other organelles. Cytoskeleton Structure:Made of microtubules 7 microfilaments Functions: Strengthen cell & maintains the shape
Moves organelles within the cell
Function of a plant cell:
Plant cells have a main function that animal cells do not: photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis, plants are able to convert light energy into food, which means that unlike animals, they manufacture their own food. To complete this process, plant cells contain a few components that animal cells do not. Chloroplasts are green, oval-shaped organelles that are responsible for the photosynthesis process. Plants also have cell walls, which allow gases to pass into the cells and provide protection for the cells. Function of a Animal Cells:
Animal cells do not contain chloroplasts or cell walls, since they do not go through the process of photosynthesis. Their general function is to process and manufacture food in order to continue survival. Animal cells contain a few organelles that contribute to this function. Lysosomes, for example, contain digestive enzymes that break down food molecules. How cells move through a cell: There are three processes included in the transfer of materials:
1. Active transport: this is when materials is transferred from low concentrations of solute to high concentration of solutes, with the use of ATP

2. Passive transport
a. diffusion - transfer of small nonpolar molecules from high to low concentrations, simply by going in and out of the cell membrane
b. facilitated diffusion - transfer of molecules from high to low concentrations with the use of proteins as passageway canals
c. osmosis -flow of water from low concentration of solutes to high concentration

3. Endocytosis
a. Phagocytosis - pseudopods of cell membrane eat up large molecules from the environment
b. Phinocytosis - pseudopods of cell membrane "eat" fluids in the environment
c. Endocytosis with receptor - selectively transfer large molecules Voeltz, Gia K. "Structural Organization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum." N.p., 3 Oct. 2002. Web. "Functions of Mitochondria | Epilepsy.com." Functions of Mitochondria | Epilepsy.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. "Vacuoles - Storage Bins to the Cells." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Vacuoles. N.p., 1997. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. "Cell Wall Structure." Cell Wall Structure. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. "Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells - Plant Biology." Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. "Biology for Life." Biology for Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. In the 17th century,Robert hooke used his microscope to examine thin clices of cork. The magnified cork shreds were composed of many little rooms in which monks lived in. So he named them cells. After hooke published his oberservation many others strted to look further into the cell theory. In 1831, Robert brown saw a dense object in many cells and named it the Nucleus. M.J Schledien, a botanist, advanced the idea that plants are made of cells, that contain Nuclei and cell fluid. In 1839, Theodor schwann used a microscope to examin parts of an animals and saw they were made up of small units too. Anton van leeuwenhoek observed microorganisms and found they were unicellular. Developement of the cell theory!!
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